Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Autonomous Mobility-on-Demand Systems: A Discrete-Time Linear Dynamical System and a Model Predictive Control Approach

Ali Aalipour, Alireza Khani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Autonomous vehicles are rapidly evolving and will soon enable large-scale mobility-on-demand (MoD) systems applications. Managing the fleets of available vehicles, commonly known as “rebalancing”, is crucial to ensure that vehicles are distributed properly to meet customer demands. This paper presents an optimal control approach to optimize vehicle scheduling and rebalancing in an autonomous mobility-on-demand (AMoD) system. We use graph theory to model a city partitioned into virtual zones. Zones represent small areas of the city where vehicles can stop and pick up/drop off customers, whereas links denote corridors of the city along which autonomous vehicles can move. They are considered vertices and edges in the graph. Vehicles employed in the AMoD scheme are autonomous, and rebalancing can be executed by dispatching available empty vehicles to areas undersupplied. Rebalancing is performed on the graph’s vertices, i.e., between city areas. We propose a linear, discrete-time model of an AMoD system using a transformed network. After acquiring the model, the desired number of rebalancing vehicles for the AMoD model is derived through an optimization problem. Moreover, the well-posedness of the model is illustrated. To leverage the proposed model, we implemented the model predictive control (MPC) framework to find the optimal rebalancing and scheduling policy. We show the MPC’s effectiveness and how the MPC framework can be implemented in real-time for a real-world case study. The numerical results show that the MPC with a linear cost function and linear reference, which it tracks, is effective, outperforming other MPC-based and state-of-the-art algorithms across all evaluation criteria.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
IEEE

Keywords

  • Autonomous mobility-on-demand
  • Computational modeling
  • dispatching
  • Mathematical models
  • MPC
  • optimal control
  • Optimization
  • predictive control
  • Predictive models
  • Public transportation
  • rebalancing
  • Routing
  • scheduling
  • transportation network modeling
  • Urban areas

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