This paper outlines reduced-order models for grid-forming virtual-oscillator-controlled inverters with nested current- and voltage-control loops, and current-limiting action for over-current protection. While a variety of model-reduction methods have been proposed to tame complexity in inverter models, previous efforts have not included the impact of current-reference limiting. In addition to acknowledging the current-limiting action, the reduced-order models we outline are tailored to networks with resistive and inductive interconnecting lines. Our analytical approach is centered on a smooth function approximation for the current-reference limiter, participation factor analysis to identify slow- and fast-varying states, and singular perturbation to systematically eliminate the fast states. Computational benefits and accuracy of the reduced-order models are benchmarked via numerical simulations that compare them to higher-order averaged and switched models.
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© 1986-2012 IEEE.
- Current limiters
- power system modeling
- reduced order systems