Mobility Anisotropy in Black Phosphorus MOSFETs With HfO2; Gate Dielectrics

Nazila Haratipour, Yue Liu, Ryan J. Wu, Seon Namgung, P. Paul Ruden, K. Andre Mkhoyan, Sang Hyun Oh, Steven J. Koester

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Precise measurements of the mobility anisotropy along high-symmetry crystal axes in black phosphorus (BP) MOSFETs are reported. Locally back-gated BP MOSFETs with 13-nm HfO2 dielectric and channel length ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 μm are fabricated. A single BP flake of a uniform thickness is exfoliated and etched along armchair (AC) and zigzag (ZZ) crystal axes, and the orientations are confirmed using optical and transmission electron microscopy analyses. The hole and electron mobilities along each direction are extracted using the transfer length method. The AC-to-ZZ hole mobility ratio is found to increase from 1.4 (1.5) to 2.0 (2.9) as the sheet concentration increased from 5.1× 1011 to 1.9× 1012 cm-2 at room temperature (77 K). The room-temperature electron mobility anisotropy is found to be similar to that for holes with an AC-to-ZZ mobility ratio increasing from 1.4 to 2.1 from 5.1× 1011 to 1.9× 1012 cm-2 though electrons showed only a very weak temperature dependence. A Boltzmann transport model is used to explain the concentration- and temperature-dependent mobility anisotropies which can be well described using a charge center scattering model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8454856
Pages (from-to)4093-4101
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2018

Bibliographical note

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  • Anisotropy
  • black phosphorus (BP)
  • mobility
  • phosphorene.

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