Mixed convection in fluid superposed porous layers. Part 2: Experiments

J. M. Dixon, F. A. Kulacki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Heat transfer coefficients are reported for mixed convection in a 10 cm × 10 cm horizontal channel partially filled with a porous layer of 3 mm DIA glass beads and bottom heated over a 10 cm length. Measurements were made for Rayleigh-Darcy numbers of 35–655, Péclet numbers of 0–316, and several porous sublayer heights (0, 5, 7.5, 9 and 10 cm). Heat transfer coefficients are favorably compared to prior numerical results and thus validate predictions. The Nusselt number is sensitive to the fraction of the overall layer occupied by the porous sublayer at sublayer fractions less than 0.5, but is less so at larger sublayer fractions. The numerical prediction of a critical Péclet number at which the Nusselt number is minimum is confirmed experimentally, showing that a small cross flow can reduce heat transfer by disrupting natural convection currents. The transition to forced convection occurs at larger Péclet numbers than have been predicted numerically.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1301-1306
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017


  • Heat transfer coefficient
  • Mixed convection
  • Porous layer
  • Superposed fluid layer


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