Mitral stenosis is a common disease that causes substantial morbidity worldwide. The disease is most prevalent in developing countries, but is increasingly being identified in an atypical form in developed countries. All treatments that increase valve area improve morbidity. Mortality improves with surgery; the benefit of percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty to mortality might be similar to that of surgery but needs further study. Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is the treatment of choice for patients in whom treatment is indicated, except for those with suboptimum valve morphology, and even these patients are sometimes treated with this procedure if surgery is not feasible or if surgical risk is prohibitive. We review the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment options for patients with mitral stenosis.