Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal evolutionary relationships of the Phytophthora 1c clade species

Erica S. Lassiter, Carsten Russ, Chad Nusbaum, Qiandong Zeng, Amanda C. Saville, Rodrigo A. Olarte, Ignazio Carbone, Chia Hui Hu, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Jose A. Samaniego, Jeffrey L. Thorne, Jean B. Ristaino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive plant pathogens of potato and tomato globally. The pathogen is closely related to four other Phytophthora species in the 1c clade including P. phaseoli, P. ipomoeae, P. mirabilis and P. andina that are important pathogens of other wild and domesticated hosts. P. andina is an interspecific hybrid between P. infestans and an unknown Phytophthora species. We have sequenced mitochondrial genomes of the sister species of P. infestans and examined the evolutionary relationships within the clade. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the P. phaseoli mitochondrial lineage is basal within the clade. P. mirabilis and P. ipomoeae are sister lineages and share a common ancestor with the Ic mitochondrial lineage of P. andina. These lineages in turn are sister to the P. infestans and P. andina Ia mitochondrial lineages. The P. andina Ic lineage diverged much earlier than the P. andina Ia mitochondrial lineage and P. infestans. The presence of two mitochondrial lineages in P. andina supports the hybrid nature of this species. The ancestral state of the P. andina Ic lineage in the tree and its occurrence only in the Andean regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Peru suggests that the origin of this species hybrid in nature may occur there.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)567-577
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Genetics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
A graduate teaching assistantship from the Department of Genetics at NC State University funded Erica Lassiter’s work. The senior author is now employed at Bayer Crop Science RTP, NC. Some of the research (J.L. Thorne) was partially supported by NIH Grant GM070806 and supplies were funded by USDA NIFA Grant #2006-55319-16550 and Agriculture and Food Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program (AFRI) Grant 2011-68004-30154. The Copenhagen-based sequencing was funded by Lundbeck Foundation Grant R52-5062 and appreciation is expressed to Tom Gilbert’s laboratory for sequencing the Ia lineage of P. andina. Appreciation for providing cultures is expressed to: Gregory Forbes and Ricardo Oliva International Potato Center (Oliva now at the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines) for P. andina; Peter Bonants, Plant Research International, Wageningen for P. ipomoeae; Mike Coffey, University of California Riverside for P. mirabilis; and Tom Evans and Nancy Gregory, University of Delaware, for P. phaseoli used in this work. The technical support of Dr. Julia Hu, Dr. Monica Blanco Menenses and Caleb Pearce is appreciated. Dr. Geromy Moore, Dr. Ben Redelings, Dr. Reed Cartwright and Kristin Lamm helped troubleshoot analytical methods and simulations.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA).


  • Late blight
  • Mitochondria
  • Phylogenetics
  • Phytophthora 1 c clade


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