Mitigation of in vitro hydrogen sulfide production using bismuth subsalicylate with and without monensin in beef feedlot diets

M. Ruiz Moreno, E. Binversie, S. W. Fessenden, Marshall D Stern

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


The objective of this study was to determine if a sulfur binder, bismuth subsalicylate (BSS), alone or combined with monensin (MON) could decrease the production of H2S by rumen microbes. In Exp. 1, two 24-h batch culture incubations were conducted using a substrate consisting of 50% corn, 40% distillers grains, 9.75% hay, and 0.25% mineral premix, on a DM basis. Five treatments including BSS concentrations of 0% (control), 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 4% of DM were assigned in 5 replicates to 120-mL serum bottles containing rumen fluid, buffer, and 0.5 g of dietary substrate. Addition of 2% and 4% BSS decreased (P < 0.05) gas production, whereas all concentrations of BSS reduced (P < 0.05) H2S production by 18%, 24%, 82%, and 99% for 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 4% BSS, respectively. Final pH increased (P < 0.05) with 2% and 4% BSS treatments. At 4% of DM, BSS decreased (P < 0.05) total VFA concentration (mM) and propionate (mol/100 mol) but increased acetate (mol/100 mol) and acetate to propionate ratio. Concentration of branched-chain VFA increased (P < 0.05) with the addition of 0.5% BSS, compared with the control. On the basis of these results, addition of BSS (1% of DM) and MON (5 mg/kg) were used to assess their effects on metabolism and H2S release by rumen microbes in 8 dual flow continuous culture fermenters during two 10-d periods (Exp. 2). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Substrate similar to that used in Exp. 1 was provided at 75 g DM/fermenter daily. Headspace H2S concentration was reduced (P < 0.05) by 99% with BSS treatment but was not affected (P = 0.21) by MON. An overall increase (P < 0.05) in fermentation pH was found following addition of BSS. Addition of BSS increased (P < 0.05) digestion of NDF and ADF but decreased (P < 0.05) nonfiber carbohydrate digestion and total VFA concentration. Acetate and propionate (mol/100 mol) increased (P < 0.05) with BSS, whereas butyrate (mol/100 mol) and branched-chain VFA (mM) decreased (P < 0.05). Addition of BSS increased (P < 0.05) NH3-N concentration and NH3-N outflow but decreased (P < 0.05) microbial N outflow. Results from this study showed no response to monensin addition, but BSS markedly reduced H2S production and altered microbial fermentation during in vitro rumen fluid incubations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5346-5354
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of animal science
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2015


  • Bismuth subsalicylate
  • Hydrogen sulfide
  • Monensin
  • Rumen


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