This paper describes research to evaluate modeling of the thermal behavior of concrete and composite pavements by the Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model (EICM), the climate-modeling package used in the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). First, the study uses temperature data collected at the Minnesota Road Research Project (MnROAD) facility from portland cement concrete (PCC) and asphalt concrete (AC)-PCC pavements to investigate benefits of AC overlays on the thermal characteristics of PCC slabs. Furthermore, the study validates EICM predictions of thermal gradients through the slabs and investigates the effect of MEPDG-user inputs for thermal conductivity of PCC. Overall, the paper examines measured data from MnROAD for AC-PCC pavements and their single-layer PCC counter-parts and attempts to explain how similar pavement systems and their thermal characteristics are taken into account in the MEPDG. The paper concludes that evaluation of the material thermal inputs should be part of a process of local calibration and adaptation of the MEPDG.