Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), a peptide closely related to dynorphin A, is the endogenous agonist of the NOP receptor that moderately increases food intake under various conditions. Its orexigenic properties are mediated by the brain circuitry. In the present review, we focus on discussing the nature of hyperphagic effects of N/OFQ with special emphasis on its function within feeding-related neural networks. Although some of N/OFQ's orexigenic effects resemble those induced by opioids, reward-dependent feeding appears to be affected in a different manner by agonists of the NOP and classical opioid receptors. Also, data suggest that N/OFQ may not only promote feeding initiation, but rather its role may be to inhibit signaling responsible for inhibition of consummatory behavior. Central systems involved in termination of feeding that seem to be influenced by N/OFQ encompass oxytocin, α-MSH, and CRH.