Minimally invasive treatment of sino-nasal aspergillosis in dogs

Clara Ballber, Tracy L. Hill, Nick X. Bommer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Background: Sino-nasal aspergillosis is a common nasal disease in dogs. Recommended treatment protocols typically involve trephination of the frontal sinuses or the use of an antifungal solution instilled into the frontal sinus under anesthesia, both of which have associated morbidity and complications. Objectives: To assess a minimally-invasive topical treatment protocol for sino-nasal aspergillosis in dogs. Animals: Twelve client-owned dogs diagnosed with sino-nasal aspergillosis that completed recommended treatment. Methods: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify dogs with sino-nasal aspergillosis that received treatment. Fungal plaques were manually debrided and irrigated via frontal sinuscopy in 12 dogs that then were treated topically with 1% topical clotrimazole cream. Irrigation and topical medication application was achieved using a catheter placed retrograde directly into the frontal sinuses using the Seldinger technique over a guidewire, thereby avoiding the need for frontal sinus trephination. Invasion into the calvarium was recorded before treatment but was not considered a criterion for exclusion. Debridement and cream deposition was repeated every 2 weeks as needed until negative culture and histopathologic findings were obtained. Results: All dogs were cured (negative results for Aspergillus on endoscopy, fungal culture, and histopathology) with a median of 2 treatments. Treatments were well tolerated, with minimal adverse effects reported. Three dogs had evidence of erosion into the calvarium on computed tomography imaging. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: This protocol appears to be an effective and well-tolerated minimally invasive treatment for sino-nasal aspergillosis, including in dogs with erosion into the calvarium. Only mild adverse effects were noted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2069-2073
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of veterinary internal medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors acknowledge all the staff and owners involved in the care of these cases. The authors also thank Dr Ian Handel, Dr Richard Mellanby, and Dr Craig Breheny for their contributions to this project. Authors declare no off-label use of antimicrobials. Authors declare no IACUC or other approval was needed.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.


  • Aspergillus
  • canine
  • clotrimazole
  • endoscopic
  • guidewire


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