Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is known to undergo reduction mediated by ferrous iron in the presence of minerals, including magnetite. Idealized laboratory conditions may not provide representative reaction kinetics or pathways compared to field conditions. The effects of magnetite mineral morphology, the aquifer material matrix, the presence of aqueous Fe(II), and the buffer identity on RDX reduction kinetics and intermediate formation are investigated in this work. Reactions in bicarbonate buffer were substantially slower than those performed in 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) buffer, and the presence of quartz and clays in magnetite-containing aquifer material resulted in slower reaction kinetics and production of additional iron oxide phases. Buffer identity also changed the rate controlling step and reaction product distribution. Conditions as close to those expected in field systems are necessary to evaluate the reaction rates and pathways of RDX in reduced groundwater systems.
- Iron oxides
- Natural attenuation