The microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus are responsible for a substantial portion of associated morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, recent evidence indicates that improved glycemic and blood pressure control can slow and perhaps even stop the development of retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in diabetic patients. In addition, early recognition of these complications provides the opportunity for early treatment, which has been shown to preserve vision, renal function, and limb integrity. Screening for the early signs of diabetic microvascular complications ensures that patient with diabetes will live longer and better lives. Therefore, the standard of medical practice in 1990s is the early recognition and treatment of the microvascular complications of diabetes.