We have used saturation transfer electron paramagnetic resonance (ST- EPR) to study the rotational dynamics of spin-labeled regulatory light chain (RLC) in scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) muscle fibers. The single cysteine (Cys 51) in isolated clam (Mercenaria) RLC was labeled with an indanedione spin label (In VSL). RLC was completely and specifically extracted from scallop striated muscle fibers, eliminating the Ca sensitivity of ATPase activity and isometric force, which were both completely restored by stoichiometric incorporation of labeled RLC. The EPR spectrum of the isolated RLC revealed nanosecond rotational motions within the RLC, which were completely eliminated when the labeled RLC was bound to myosin heads in myofibrils or fibers in rigor. This is the most strongly immobilized RLC- bound probe reported to date and thus offers the most reliable detection of the overall rotational motion of the LC domain. Conventional EPR spectra of oriented fibers indicated essentially complete probe disorder, independent of ATP and Ca, eliminating orientational dependence and thus making this probe ideal for unambiguous measurement of microsecond rotational motions of the LC domain by ST-EPR. ST-EPR spectra of fibers in rigor indicated an effective rotational correlation time (τ(r)(eff)) of 140 ± 5 μs, similar to that observed for the same spin label bound to the catalytic domain. Relaxation by ATP induced microsecond rotational motion (τ(r)(eff) = 70 ± 4 μs), and this motion was slightly slower upon Ca activation of isometric contraction (τ(r)(eff) = 100 ± 5 μs). These motions in relaxation and contraction are similar to, but slower than, the motions previously reported for the same spin label bound to the catalytic domain. These results support a model for force generation involving rotational motion of the LC domain relative to the catalytic domain and dynamic disorder-to-order transitions in both domains.