MicroRNA Regulation of Airway Inflammation and Airway Smooth Muscle Function

Relevance to Asthma

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Preclinical Research Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and severity of asthma. Molecular pathogenesis of asthma involves changes in gene expression by a variety of inflammatory mediators acting in autocrine and paracrine fashion on effector cells of the airways. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in resident airway cells has been studied extensively. However, protein function in a target cell can be regulated at multiple levels starting from transcription followed by post-transcription, translation, and post-translation steps. In this context, small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) have evolved as one of the key regulators of gene expression post-transcriptionally. Most importantly, miRNA expression is dynamic in nature and can be regulated by a variety of external stimuli. Altered expression of individual or a group of miRNAs is thought to contribute to human diseases. Recent studies have implicated differential expression of miRNAs in the lungs during inflammation. Most importantly, advanced biochemical and molecular tools could be used to manipulate miRNA expression thereby effecting functional changes in target cells and organ systems. This review summarizes the current understanding of miRNA in the regulation of airway function in health and disease, and highlights the potential clinical utility of mRNAs as biomarkers of airway diseases and as potential therapeutic targets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)286-295
Number of pages10
JournalDrug Development Research
Volume76
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015

Fingerprint

MicroRNAs
Smooth Muscle
Asthma
Inflammation
Gene Expression
Small Untranslated RNA
Genetic Research
Gene Expression Regulation
Regulator Genes
Pneumonia
Biomarkers
Messenger RNA
Health
Proteins

Keywords

  • airway hyperresponsiveness
  • allergic airway disease
  • microRNA therapeutics
  • murine asthma models

Cite this

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title = "MicroRNA Regulation of Airway Inflammation and Airway Smooth Muscle Function: Relevance to Asthma",
abstract = "Preclinical Research Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and severity of asthma. Molecular pathogenesis of asthma involves changes in gene expression by a variety of inflammatory mediators acting in autocrine and paracrine fashion on effector cells of the airways. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in resident airway cells has been studied extensively. However, protein function in a target cell can be regulated at multiple levels starting from transcription followed by post-transcription, translation, and post-translation steps. In this context, small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) have evolved as one of the key regulators of gene expression post-transcriptionally. Most importantly, miRNA expression is dynamic in nature and can be regulated by a variety of external stimuli. Altered expression of individual or a group of miRNAs is thought to contribute to human diseases. Recent studies have implicated differential expression of miRNAs in the lungs during inflammation. Most importantly, advanced biochemical and molecular tools could be used to manipulate miRNA expression thereby effecting functional changes in target cells and organ systems. This review summarizes the current understanding of miRNA in the regulation of airway function in health and disease, and highlights the potential clinical utility of mRNAs as biomarkers of airway diseases and as potential therapeutic targets.",
keywords = "airway hyperresponsiveness, allergic airway disease, microRNA therapeutics, murine asthma models",
author = "Deshpande, {D. A.} and Mythili Dileepan and Walseth, {Timothy F} and Subree Subramanian and Kannan, {Mathur S}",
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AU - Deshpande, D. A.

AU - Dileepan, Mythili

AU - Walseth, Timothy F

AU - Subramanian, Subree

AU - Kannan, Mathur S

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N2 - Preclinical Research Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and severity of asthma. Molecular pathogenesis of asthma involves changes in gene expression by a variety of inflammatory mediators acting in autocrine and paracrine fashion on effector cells of the airways. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in resident airway cells has been studied extensively. However, protein function in a target cell can be regulated at multiple levels starting from transcription followed by post-transcription, translation, and post-translation steps. In this context, small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) have evolved as one of the key regulators of gene expression post-transcriptionally. Most importantly, miRNA expression is dynamic in nature and can be regulated by a variety of external stimuli. Altered expression of individual or a group of miRNAs is thought to contribute to human diseases. Recent studies have implicated differential expression of miRNAs in the lungs during inflammation. Most importantly, advanced biochemical and molecular tools could be used to manipulate miRNA expression thereby effecting functional changes in target cells and organ systems. This review summarizes the current understanding of miRNA in the regulation of airway function in health and disease, and highlights the potential clinical utility of mRNAs as biomarkers of airway diseases and as potential therapeutic targets.

AB - Preclinical Research Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and severity of asthma. Molecular pathogenesis of asthma involves changes in gene expression by a variety of inflammatory mediators acting in autocrine and paracrine fashion on effector cells of the airways. Transcriptional regulation of gene expression in resident airway cells has been studied extensively. However, protein function in a target cell can be regulated at multiple levels starting from transcription followed by post-transcription, translation, and post-translation steps. In this context, small noncoding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) have evolved as one of the key regulators of gene expression post-transcriptionally. Most importantly, miRNA expression is dynamic in nature and can be regulated by a variety of external stimuli. Altered expression of individual or a group of miRNAs is thought to contribute to human diseases. Recent studies have implicated differential expression of miRNAs in the lungs during inflammation. Most importantly, advanced biochemical and molecular tools could be used to manipulate miRNA expression thereby effecting functional changes in target cells and organ systems. This review summarizes the current understanding of miRNA in the regulation of airway function in health and disease, and highlights the potential clinical utility of mRNAs as biomarkers of airway diseases and as potential therapeutic targets.

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KW - murine asthma models

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