Microfluidic Electrochemical Sensor for Heavy Metal Detection Using Pyrolytic Carbon Electrodes and Valveless Micropump

Peng Zhou, Tianyi Zhang, Y. Xu, T. Simon, T. Cui

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

This paper reports, for the first time, the use of pyrolyzed KMPR photoresist to form carbon sensors for detection of trace heavy metals using anodic stripping voltammetry. Shown in this report is its integration with a valveless micropump. This sensor can be used to detect ions of almost any heavy metal in an aqueous solution due to its low overpotential, preventing production of hydrogen. It achieves continuous, real-time measurements. Bismuth ions are added, and the concentration is optimized to enhance sensitivity. The limit of detection of lead ions is 40 ppt under a steady mass flow rate of 10 mL/h. Compared with traditional heavy metal sensors, this microfluidic carbon sensor reduces the limit of detection by three orders. Use of it with a valveless micropump doubles its sensitivity. This doubling is due to fast mass transfer effected by the unsteady valveless micropump flow.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of MARSS 2022 - 5th International Conference on Manipulation, Automation, and Robotics at Small Scales
EditorsSinan Haliyo, Mokrane Boudaoud, Eric Diller, Xinyu Liu, Yu Sun, Sergej Fatikow
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781665459730
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022
Event5th International Conference on Manipulation, Automation, and Robotics at Small Scales, MARSS 2022 - Toronto, Canada
Duration: Jul 25 2022Jul 29 2022

Publication series

NameProceedings of MARSS 2022 - 5th International Conference on Manipulation, Automation, and Robotics at Small Scales

Conference

Conference5th International Conference on Manipulation, Automation, and Robotics at Small Scales, MARSS 2022
Country/TerritoryCanada
CityToronto
Period7/25/227/29/22

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
*Research supported by the Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund (ENRTF) Foundation. P. Z. is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA (e-mail: zhou1161@ umn.edu). T. Z. is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA (e-mail: zhan6202@ umn.edu). Y. X. is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA (e-mail: xu000258@ umn.edu). T. S. is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA (e-mail: simon002@ umn.edu). T. C. is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA (phone: 612-626-1636; e-mail: cuixx006@umn.edu).

Funding Information:
This work was partially sponsored by Environment and Natural Resources Trust Fund (ENRTF) funding in Minnesota State. Portions of this work were conducted in the Minnesota Nano Center, which is supported by the NSF through the National Nano Coordinated Infrastructure Network (NNCI) under Award Number ECCS-1542202. Parts of this work were conducted in the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which receives partial support from the NSF through the MRSEC (Award Number DMR-2011401) and the NNCI (Award Number ECCS-2025124) programs. The simulation work was conducted at the University of Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 IEEE.

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