Tobacco smoking contributes to about 50% of the bladder-cancer (BC) cases in the United States. Some aromatic amines in tobacco smoke are bladder carcinogens; however, other causal agents of BC are uncertain. Exfoliated urinary cells (EUCs) are a promising noninvasive biospecimen to screen for DNA adducts of chemicals that damage the bladder genome, although the analysis of DNA adducts in EUCs is technically challenging because of the low number of EUCs and limiting quantity of cellular DNA. Moreover, EUCs and their DNA adducts must remain viable during the time of collection and storage of urine to develop robust screening methods. We employed RT4 cells, a well-differentiated transitional epithelial bladder cell line, as a cell-model system in urine to investigate cell viability and the chemical stability of DNA adducts of two prototypical bladder carcinogens: 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP), an aromatic amine found in tobacco smoke, and aristolochic acid I (AA-I), a nitrophenanthrene found in Aristolochia herbaceous plants used for medicinal purposes worldwide. The cell viability of RT4 cells pretreated with 4-ABP or AA-I in urine exceeded 80%, and the major DNA adducts of 4-ABP and AA-I, quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were stable for 24 h. Thereafter, we successfully screened EUCs of mice treated with AA-I to measure DNA adducts of AA-I, which were still detected 25 days following treatment with the carcinogen. EUCs are promising biospecimens that can be employed for the screening of DNA adducts of environmental and dietary genotoxicants that may contribute to the development of BC.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work is supported by R01ES019564 (R.J.T.) from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and by R01CA220367 (R.J.T. and T.A.R.) from the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. Mass spectrometry was carried out in the Analytical Biochemistry Share Resources of the Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, funded in part by Cancer Center Support Grant CA-077598. We thank Lihua Yao and Sesha Krishnamachari, University of Minnesota, for their technical assistance.
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