Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) catalyzes the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, the major biological methyl donor. MAT1A and MAT2A encode two distinct MAT isoforms in mammals. MAT2A is expressed in nonhepatic tissues, whereas MAT1A is expressed in the liver. A third gene, MAT2B, encodes a MAT2A regulatory protein. We resequenced MAT2A and MAT2B exons, splice junctions, and flanking regions using 288 DNA samples from three ethnic groups and also imputed additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across both genes using data from the 1000 Genomes Project. For MAT2A, resequencing identified 74 polymorphisms, including two nonsynonymous (ns) SNPs. Functional genomic studies of wild type and the two MAT2A variant allozymes (Val11 and Val205) showed that the Val11 allozyme had approximately 40% decreases in levels of enzyme activity and immunoreactive protein after COS-1 cell transfection. For MAT2B, 44 polymorphisms, 2 nonsynonymous, were identified during resequencing. Neither of the two MAT2B nsSNPs displayed alterations in levels of protein. Imputation using 1000 Genomes Project data resulted in 1730 additional MAT2A and 1997 MAT2B polymorphisms within ± 200 kilobases of each gene, respectively. Coexpression of MAT2A and MAT2B in COS-1 cells resulted in significantly increased MAT enzyme activity that correlated with increased MAT2A and MAT2B immunoreactive protein, apparently as a result of decreased degradation. Finally, studies of mRNA expression in lymphoblastoid cells showed that 7 SNPs in MAT2A and 16 SNPs in MAT2B were significantly associated with mRNA expression with p < 0.01. These observations provide a foundation for future mechanistic and clinical translational pharmacogenomic studies of MAT2A/2B.