We present the results of direct numerical simulation of zinc nanoparticle nucleation in turbulent round jets. We resolve all of the appropriate length and time scales to solve the coupled fluid, heat, and mass-transfer equations. A recently developed homogeneous nucleation model is used to represent the formation of zinc nanoparticles. The jets are composed of hot metal vapor diluted in nitrogen issuing into a cooler, co-flowing stream. Nucleation occurs along the outer regions of the jet with regions over which nucleation occurs increasing significantly after collapse of the jet potential core. Graphical abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by the Institute for Renewable Energy and the Environment at the University of Minnesota. All simulations were performed at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.
- Homogeneous nucleation
- Large eddy simulation
- Turbulence direct numerical simulation