Metacognition, course performance, and perceived competence for learning: An examination of quiz and exam wrappers.

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There is some evidence to support that instructing students in developing metacognitive skills will aid in their awareness of learning, though additional research on performance effects, specific approaches (e.g., exam wrappers), and implementation into actual courses is warranted. In the current quasi-experimental study, 14 sections (n = 244 students) of two online undergraduate psychology courses (Abnormal, Social) were assigned to receive either an exam and quiz wrapper (EQW) condition or class as usual (no wrappers). The EQW condition consisted of students watching videos on learning and study strategies and completing a related wrapper assignment following the first exam, as well as completing brief quiz wrappers encouraging reflection upon and correcting weekly chapter quizzes. Metacognition, perceived competence and enjoyment with learning in the course, and quiz and exam performance were assessed. Results indicated that students in the EQW condition reported better metacognition (d = 0.33), perceived learning competence (d = 0.41), and enjoyment with learning the course material (d = 0.28) than students in the control group. Course performance outcomes were mixed with some small-to-moderate differences found with quiz and exam scores (ηp2 = 0.03, 0.05, respectively), particularly for students who reported making a point of using the study strategies and wrappers throughout the course. Although the intervention had some benefits to students across outcomes, additional efforts at engaging students with these learning strategies are needed.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)209
Number of pages222
JournalScholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2019


  • Metacognition
  • Study Strategies
  • Exam Wrapper


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