Metabolomic analysis of CSF indicates brain metabolic impairment precedes hematological indices of anemia in the iron-deficient infant monkey

Raghavendra Rao, Kathleen Ennis, Gabriele R. Lubach, Eric F. Lock, Michael K. Georgieff, Christopher L. Coe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID) anemia leads to long-term neurodevelopmental deficits by altering iron-dependent brain metabolism. The objective of the study was to determine if ID induces metabolomic abnormalities in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the pre-anemic stage and to ascertain the aspects of abnormal brain metabolism affected. Methods: Standard hematological parameters [hemoglobin (Hgb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), transferrin (Tf) saturation, and zinc protoporphyrin/heme (ZnPP/H)] were compared at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 months in iron-sufficient (IS; n = 7) and iron-deficient (ID; n = 7) infant rhesus monkeys. Five CSF metabolite ratios were determined at 4, 8, and 12 months using 1H NMR spectroscopy at 16.4 T and compared between groups and in relation to hematologic parameters. Results: ID infants developed ID (Tf saturation < 25%) by 4 months of age and all became anemic (Hgb < 110 g/L and MCV < 60 fL) at 6 months. Their heme indices normalized by 12 months. Pyruvate/glutamine and phosphocreatine/creatine (PCr/Cr) ratios in CSF were lower in the ID infants by 4 months (P < 0.05). The PCr/Cr ratio remained lower at 8 months (P = 0.02). ZnPP/H, an established blood marker of pre-anemic ID, was positively correlated with the CSF citrate/glutamine ratio (marginal correlation, 0.34; P < 0.001; family wise error rate = 0.001). Discussion: Metabolomic analysis of the CSF is sensitive for detecting the effects of pre-anemic ID on brain energy metabolism. Persistence of a lower PCr/Cr ratio at 8 months, even as hematological measures demonstrated recovery from anemia, indicate that the restoration of brain energy metabolism is delayed. Metabolomic platforms offer a useful tool for early detection of the impact of ID on brain metabolism in infants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-48
Number of pages9
JournalNutritional Neuroscience
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2 2018

Keywords

  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Energy metabolism
  • Infant
  • Iron
  • Iron deficiency
  • Metabolomics
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Rhesus monkey

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