OBJECTIVE Hispanics/Latinos have the highest risks for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the U.S. and are also at increased risk for Alzheimer disease. In this study, we examined associations among neurocognitive function, MetS, and inflammation among diverse middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Cross-sectional data(2008–2011) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) were analyzed to examine associations between neurocognition and MetS among diverse Hispanics/Latinos (N = 9,136; aged 45–74 years). RESULTS MetS status was associated with lower global neurocognition, mental status,verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, and executive function. Age significantly modified the associations between MetS and learning and memory measures. Significant associations between MetS and neurocognition were observed among middle-aged Hispanics/Latinos, and all associations remained robust to additional covariates adjustment. CONCLUSIONS We found that MetS was associated with lower neurocognitive function, particularly in midlife. Our findings support and extend current hypotheses that midlife may be a particularly vulnerable developmental period for unhealthy neurocognitive aging.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments. The authors thank the staff of and participants in HCHS/SOL for important contributions (see http://www.cscc.unc.edu/ hchs/ for a list of investigators). Funding. H.M.G. and W.T. received support for this work from National Institute on Aging (NIA) grants R01-AG048642, RF1-AG054548, and R21-AG053760. H.M.G. also received support from NIA grant P30-AG005131 and W.T. from NIA grant P30-AG053760. They previously received support from National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) grant HC65233. The HCHS/SOL was carried out as a collaborative study supported by contracts from the NHLBI to the University of North Carolina (N01-HC65233), University of Miami (N01-HC65234), Albert EinsteinCollegeofMedicine(N01-HC65235),North-western University (N01-HC65236), and San Diego State University (N01-HC65237). The following institutes/centers/offices contributed to the HCHS/SOL through a transfer of funds to the NHLBI: National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the National InstitutesofHealth(NIH)OfficeofDietarySupple-ments. This work was supported by the NIH.