Metabolic patterns in Spirodela polyrhiza revealed by 15N stable isotope labeling of amino acids in photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth conditions

Erin M. Evans, Dana M Freund, Veronica M. Sondervan, Jerry D Cohen, Adrian D Hegeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

In this study we describe a [15N] stable isotopic labeling study of amino acids in Spirodela polyrhiza (common duckweed) grown under three different light and carbon input conditions which represent unique potential metabolic modes. Plants were grown with a light cycle, either with supplemental sucrose (mixotrophic) or without supplemental sucrose (photoautotrophic) and in the dark with supplemental sucrose (heterotrophic). Labeling patterns, pool sizes (both metabolically active and inactive), and kinetics/turnover rates were estimated for 17 of the proteinogenic amino acids. Estimation of these parameters followed several overall trends. First, most amino acids showed plateaus in labeling patterns of < 100% [15N]-labeling, indicating the possibility of a large proportion of amino acids residing in metabolically inactive metabolite pools. Second, total pool sizes appear largest in the dark (heterotrophic) condition, whereas active pool sizes appeared to be largest in the light with sucrose (mixotrophic) growth condition. In contrast turnover measurements based on pool size were highest overall in the light with sucrose experiment, with the exception of leucine/isoleucine, lysine, and arginine, which all showed higher turnover in the dark. K-means clustering analysis also revealed more rapid turnover in the light treatments with many amino acids clustering in lower-turnover groups. Emerging insights from other research were also supported, such as the prevalence of alternate pathways for serine metabolism in non-photosynthetic cells. These data provide extensive novel information on amino acid pool size and kinetics in S. polyrhiza and can serve as groundwork for future metabolic studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number191
JournalFrontiers in Chemistry
Volume6
Issue numberMAY
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2018

Fingerprint

Isotopes
Labeling
Sucrose
Amino Acids
Kinetics
Isoleucine
Metabolites
Metabolism
Leucine
Serine
Lysine
Arginine
Carbon
Experiments

Keywords

  • Amino acids
  • Autotrophic
  • Duckweed
  • Heterotrophic
  • Mixotrophic
  • Nitrogen
  • Spirodela polyrhiza
  • Stable isotope

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

Cite this

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title = "Metabolic patterns in Spirodela polyrhiza revealed by 15N stable isotope labeling of amino acids in photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth conditions",
abstract = "In this study we describe a [15N] stable isotopic labeling study of amino acids in Spirodela polyrhiza (common duckweed) grown under three different light and carbon input conditions which represent unique potential metabolic modes. Plants were grown with a light cycle, either with supplemental sucrose (mixotrophic) or without supplemental sucrose (photoautotrophic) and in the dark with supplemental sucrose (heterotrophic). Labeling patterns, pool sizes (both metabolically active and inactive), and kinetics/turnover rates were estimated for 17 of the proteinogenic amino acids. Estimation of these parameters followed several overall trends. First, most amino acids showed plateaus in labeling patterns of < 100{\%} [15N]-labeling, indicating the possibility of a large proportion of amino acids residing in metabolically inactive metabolite pools. Second, total pool sizes appear largest in the dark (heterotrophic) condition, whereas active pool sizes appeared to be largest in the light with sucrose (mixotrophic) growth condition. In contrast turnover measurements based on pool size were highest overall in the light with sucrose experiment, with the exception of leucine/isoleucine, lysine, and arginine, which all showed higher turnover in the dark. K-means clustering analysis also revealed more rapid turnover in the light treatments with many amino acids clustering in lower-turnover groups. Emerging insights from other research were also supported, such as the prevalence of alternate pathways for serine metabolism in non-photosynthetic cells. These data provide extensive novel information on amino acid pool size and kinetics in S. polyrhiza and can serve as groundwork for future metabolic studies.",
keywords = "Amino acids, Autotrophic, Duckweed, Heterotrophic, Mixotrophic, Nitrogen, Spirodela polyrhiza, Stable isotope",
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year = "2018",
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T1 - Metabolic patterns in Spirodela polyrhiza revealed by 15N stable isotope labeling of amino acids in photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth conditions

AU - Evans, Erin M.

AU - Freund, Dana M

AU - Sondervan, Veronica M.

AU - Cohen, Jerry D

AU - Hegeman, Adrian D

PY - 2018/5/1

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N2 - In this study we describe a [15N] stable isotopic labeling study of amino acids in Spirodela polyrhiza (common duckweed) grown under three different light and carbon input conditions which represent unique potential metabolic modes. Plants were grown with a light cycle, either with supplemental sucrose (mixotrophic) or without supplemental sucrose (photoautotrophic) and in the dark with supplemental sucrose (heterotrophic). Labeling patterns, pool sizes (both metabolically active and inactive), and kinetics/turnover rates were estimated for 17 of the proteinogenic amino acids. Estimation of these parameters followed several overall trends. First, most amino acids showed plateaus in labeling patterns of < 100% [15N]-labeling, indicating the possibility of a large proportion of amino acids residing in metabolically inactive metabolite pools. Second, total pool sizes appear largest in the dark (heterotrophic) condition, whereas active pool sizes appeared to be largest in the light with sucrose (mixotrophic) growth condition. In contrast turnover measurements based on pool size were highest overall in the light with sucrose experiment, with the exception of leucine/isoleucine, lysine, and arginine, which all showed higher turnover in the dark. K-means clustering analysis also revealed more rapid turnover in the light treatments with many amino acids clustering in lower-turnover groups. Emerging insights from other research were also supported, such as the prevalence of alternate pathways for serine metabolism in non-photosynthetic cells. These data provide extensive novel information on amino acid pool size and kinetics in S. polyrhiza and can serve as groundwork for future metabolic studies.

AB - In this study we describe a [15N] stable isotopic labeling study of amino acids in Spirodela polyrhiza (common duckweed) grown under three different light and carbon input conditions which represent unique potential metabolic modes. Plants were grown with a light cycle, either with supplemental sucrose (mixotrophic) or without supplemental sucrose (photoautotrophic) and in the dark with supplemental sucrose (heterotrophic). Labeling patterns, pool sizes (both metabolically active and inactive), and kinetics/turnover rates were estimated for 17 of the proteinogenic amino acids. Estimation of these parameters followed several overall trends. First, most amino acids showed plateaus in labeling patterns of < 100% [15N]-labeling, indicating the possibility of a large proportion of amino acids residing in metabolically inactive metabolite pools. Second, total pool sizes appear largest in the dark (heterotrophic) condition, whereas active pool sizes appeared to be largest in the light with sucrose (mixotrophic) growth condition. In contrast turnover measurements based on pool size were highest overall in the light with sucrose experiment, with the exception of leucine/isoleucine, lysine, and arginine, which all showed higher turnover in the dark. K-means clustering analysis also revealed more rapid turnover in the light treatments with many amino acids clustering in lower-turnover groups. Emerging insights from other research were also supported, such as the prevalence of alternate pathways for serine metabolism in non-photosynthetic cells. These data provide extensive novel information on amino acid pool size and kinetics in S. polyrhiza and can serve as groundwork for future metabolic studies.

KW - Amino acids

KW - Autotrophic

KW - Duckweed

KW - Heterotrophic

KW - Mixotrophic

KW - Nitrogen

KW - Spirodela polyrhiza

KW - Stable isotope

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