Field trials were conducted in 17 U.S. states to evaluate the effects of quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) and demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide programs on Fusarium head blight index (IND) and deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin in wheat. Four DMI-only treatments applied at Feekes 10.5.1, five QoI-only treatments applied between Feekes 9 or Feekes 10.5, three QoI+DMI mixtures applied at Feekes 10.5, and three treatments consisting of a QoI at Feekes 9 followed by a DMI at Feekes 10.5.1 were evaluated. Network meta-analytical models were fitted to log-transformed mean IND and DON data and estimated contrasts of log means were used to obtain estimates of mean percent controls relative to the nontreated check as measures of efficacy. Results from the meta-analyses were also used to assess the risk of DON increase in future trials. DMI at Feekes 10.5.1 were the most effective programs against IND and DON and the least likely to increase DON in future trials. QoI-only programs increased mean DON over the nontreated checks and were the most likely to do so in future trials, particularly when applied at Feekes 10.5. The effects of QoI+DMI combinations depended on the active ingredients and whether the two were applied as a mixture at heading or sequentially. Following a Feekes 9 QoI application with a Feekes 10.5.1 application of a DMI reduced the negative effect of the QoI on DON but was not sufficient to achieve the efficacy of the Feekes 10.5.1 DMI-only treatments. Our results suggest that one must be prudent when using QoI treatments under moderate to high risk of FHB, particularly where the QoI is used without an effective DMI applied in combination or in sequence.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Salaries and research support for P. A. Paul, L. V. Madden, and F. D. DaSilva were provided by state and federal funds to the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. This is a cooperative project with the U.S. Wheat & Barley Scab Initiative (agreements 59-0206-4-018 [The Ohio State University], 59-0206-4-006 [Cornell University], 59-0206-4-042 [Purdue University], and 59-0206-4-016 [The University of Minnesota]). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the United States Department of Agriculture. We thank W. Bardall, M. Wallhead, and the Snyder farm crew for assisting with the establishment and maintenance of plots in Wooster, OH.
© 2018 The American Phytopathological Society