Meta-analysis of brain size in bipolar disorder

Elizabeth A. Hoge, Lee Friedman, S. Charles Schulz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


A recent meta-analysis concluded that patients with schizophrenia have reduced cerebral volume, and this finding has been used to implicate neurodevelopmental events in the etiology of this disorder. Since bipolar- disorder patients and schizophrenia patients have some similar brain abnormalities, it was of interest to meta-analytically review the literature on brain size in bipolar disorder. Only seven studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria for our metaanalysis, but none reported the brain size differences between the bipolar patients and the controls to be statistically significant. The composite effect size was a negligible 0.04 (95% CI: -0.17 to 0.25) and statistically not significantly different from 0.0 (no effect). Thus, it appears that bipolar disorder is not associated with the same cerebral volume reductions noted in schizophrenia. Implications for hypotheses regarding the etiology of the two disorders are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)177-181
Number of pages5
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 25 1999


  • Bipolar disorder
  • Cerebral volume
  • Intracranial volume
  • Meta-analysis


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