Meta-Analysis and Common Practice Elements of Universal Approaches to Improving Student-Teacher Relationships

Laurie L Kincade, Clayton Cook, Annie Goerdt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Past research has shown student-teacher relationships (STRs) are associated with student outcomes, including improvements in academic achievement and engagement and reductions in disruptive behaviors, suspension, and risk of dropping out. Schools can support STRs universally and systematically by implementing universal, school-wide, and class-wide programs and practices that aim to facilitate high-quality STRs. This study applied meta-analytic and common element procedures to determine effect sizes and specific practices of universal approaches to improving STRs. The universal programs with the largest effects were Establish-Maintain-Restore and BRIDGE. Other programs demonstrated moderate effects in one study, with combined effect sizes revealing smaller effects. The common elements procedure identified 44 practices teachers can implement to promote positive STRs, with 14 proactive and direct practices. Programs with the largest effects, in general, contained the most proactive and direct practices for improving STRs. Implications of these findings and future research recommendations are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)710-748
Number of pages39
JournalReview of Educational Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2020


  • and practices
  • student-teacher relationship
  • Tier 1
  • universal influences


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