Message processes and their associations with adolescents’ executive function and reports of bullying

John P. Crowley, Jacquelyn A. Harvey-Knowles, Nathaniel R. Riggs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Substantial research has identified the negative health outcomes associated with bullying for adolescent victims. Researchers have examined expressive writing as a possible method by which to decrease violence among adolescents. Results of these studies, however, suggest that expressive writing is associated with positive, negative, and neutral outcomes for adolescents. The present study had two aims related to these mixed findings. First, it sought to investigate the association between micro- and macro-level message processes that relate with self-regulation in adolescent writings about bullying and their reports of bullying behavior. Second, it examined whether executive function processes may play a role in explaining the inconsistent results for expressive writing among adolescents. Results identify several message processes that are linked with reports of bullying behavior directly as well as indirectly through the pathway of executive function. Implications for expressive writing interventions aimed at reducing bullying are discussed, particularly with respect to the importance of screening for executive function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)32-50
Number of pages19
JournalSchool Psychology International
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015, © The Author(s) 2015.


  • Adolescents
  • bullying
  • executive function
  • expressive writing
  • message processes
  • self-regulation


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