The recent discovery of a novel, membrane localized progestin receptor (mPR) unrelated to the classical progesterone receptor (PR) in fishes and its subsequent identification in mammals suggests a potential mediator of non-traditional progestin actions, particularly in tissues where PR is absent. While early studies on mPR focused on final oocyte maturation in fishes, more current studies have examined mPRs in multiple mammalian systems in both reproductive and non-reproductive tissues as well as in diseased tissues. Here we review the current data on mPR in mammalian systems including male and female reproductive tracts, liver, neuroendocrine tissues, the immune system and breast and ovarian cancer. We also provide new data demonstrating mPR expression in the RAW 264.7 immune cell line and bone marrow-derived macrophages as well as mPR expression and downstream gene regulation in ovarian cancer cells.
- Breast cancer
- Membrane progesterone receptor
- Ovarian cancer