MEGARes 2.0: A database for classification of antimicrobial drug, biocide and metal resistance determinants in metagenomic sequence data

Enrique Doster, Steven M. Lakin, Christopher J. Dean, Cory Wolfe, Jared G. Young, Christina Boucher, Keith E. Belk, Noelle R. Noyes, Paul S. Morley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to global public health and the identification of genetic determinants of AMR is a critical component to epidemiological investigations. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) provides opportunities for investigation of AMR across all microbial genomes in a sample (i.e. the metagenome). Previously, we presented MEGARes, a hand-curated AMR database and annotation structure developed to facilitate the analysis of AMR within metagenomic samples (i.e. the resistome). Along with MEGARes, we released AmrPlusPlus, a bioinformatics pipeline that interfaces with MEGARes to identify and quantify AMR gene accessions contained within a metagenomic sequence dataset. Here, we present MEGARes 2.0 (, which incorporates previously published resistance sequences for antimicrobial drugs, while also expanding to include published sequences for metal and biocide resistance determinants. In MEGARes 2.0, the nodes of the acyclic hierarchical ontology include four antimicrobial compound types, 57 classes, 220 mechanisms of resistance, and 1,345 gene groups that classify the 7,868 accessions. In addition, we present an updated version of AmrPlusPlus (AMR ++ version 2.0), which improves accuracy of classifications, as well as expanding scalability and usability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)D561-D569
JournalNucleic acids research
Issue numberD1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
USDA NIFA [2015-68003-23048]; College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences - Texas A&M University; N.N. was supported by NIH [R01 1R01AI141810-01]; Agricultural Research, Education, Extension and Technology Transfer program at the University of Minnesota; C.D. was supported by USDA NIFA [2018-51300-28563]. Funding for open access charge: Startup funding for Dr Morley’s current position. Conflict of interest statement. None declared.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.


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