Two studies examined contingent take-home medication doses during treatment of opiate or cocaine dependence. In the first study, methadone maintenance patients were randomly assigned to one of two 8-week baseline take-home (TH) conditions differing in frequency of clinic visits per week. This was followed by a 12-week contingency management (CM) procedure in which frequent THs resulted from drug-free urines. Participants receiving more frequent THs during baseline had lower illicit drug use during the first 6 weeks of CM. In the second study, fluoxetine (0-, 20-, 40-mg) Th doses were similarly contingent in treatment of cocaine dependence. The 40-mg group used less cocaine during contingency than did other groups. The combination of fluoxetine and environmental contingencies may produce benefit where neither alone is sufficient.