Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) causes CD4 T cell depletion through a number of mechanisms, including programmed cell death pathways (both apoptotic and nonapoptotic). In the setting of HIV-1 infection, the enhanced lymphocyte cell death occurs as a consequence of complex interactions between the host immune system and viral factors, which are reviewed herein. On the other hand, the main challenge to HIV-1 eradication is the development of latent infection in a subset of long lived cells, including CD4+ T cells and macrophages, which resist HIV-induced cell death. Understanding the potential mechanisms of how HIV-1 induces lymphocyte cell death is critical to the "kick and kill" cure strategy, which relies on the effective killing of reactivated, HIV-1-infected cells.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Mayo Clinic Foundation, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under award numbers R56AI145407 (N.W.C.), and R01AI110173 and R01AI120698 (A.D.B.).
© Copyright 2020, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
- human immunodeficiency virus