Mechanical Property Evaluation of Hybrid Mixed-Species CLT Panels with Sugar Maple and White Spruce

Yunxiang Ma, Ruizhe Si, Munkaila Musah, Qingli Dai, Xinfeng Xie, Xiping Wang, Robert J. Ross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


This study evaluated the mechanical properties of hybrid (mixed-species) cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels made of low-value sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and white spruce (Picea glauca). The modulus of elasticity (MOE) of the laminations was measured with a nondestructive method. Three-layer hybrid CLT panels with layup combinations of sugar maple-white spruce-sugar maple and white spruce-sugar maple-white spruce were prepared to evaluate the effects of layups on the performance of the CLT samples. The mechanical properties of hybrid CLT panels were evaluated with different layups and both melamine- and resorcinol-based adhesives. Both long-span and short-span third-point bending tests were conducted to study the flexural and shear behavior of each CLT panel type. It was found that the influence of adhesive types was not significant. The mechanical properties of the hybrid CLT panels with sugar maple surface layers were improved significantly compared with those of the current standard layups. Both bending tests were simulated with finite-element analysis based on measured and reference material properties. The simulated results of each case were in good agreement with the test results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number04021171
JournalJournal of Materials in Civil Engineering
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was partially supported through a cooperative research agreement (FS 17-JV-11111133-034) between Michigan Technological University and the USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory. The authors are grateful to AJD Forest Products (Grayling, Michigan) for donating the low-value sugar maple lumber for this project.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Society of Civil Engineers.


  • Cross-laminated timber (CLT)
  • Finite-element modeling
  • Flexural properties
  • Low-value hardwood
  • Mixed species


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