Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Rafael Lozano, Nancy Fullman, John Everett Mumford, Megan Knight, Celine M. Barthelemy, Cristiana Abbafati, Hedayat Abbastabar, Foad Abd-Allah, Mohammad Abdollahi, Aidin Abedi, Hassan Abolhassani, Akine Eshete Abosetugn, Lucas Guimarães Abreu, Michael R.M. Abrigo, Abdulaziz Khalid Abu Haimed, Abdelrahman I. Abushouk, Maryam Adabi, Oladimeji M. Adebayo, Victor Adekanmbi, Jaimie AdelsonOlatunji O. Adetokunboh, Davoud Adham, Shailesh M. Advani, Ashkan Afshin, Gina Agarwal, Pradyumna Agasthi, Seyed Mohammad Kazem Aghamir, Anurag Agrawal, Tauseef Ahmad, Rufus Olusola Akinyemi, Fares Alahdab, Ziyad Al-Aly, Khurshid Alam, Samuel B. Albertson, Yihun Mulugeta Alemu, Robert Kaba Alhassan, Muhammad Ali, Saqib Ali, Vahid Alipour, Syed Mohamed Aljunid, François Alla, Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi, Ali Almasi, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Nihad A. Almasri, Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi, Abdulaziz M. Almulhim, Jordi Alonso, Rajaa M. Al-Raddadi, Khalid A. Altirkawi, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Nelson J. Alvis-Zakzuk, Saeed Amini, Mostafa Amini-Rarani, Fatemeh Amiri, Arianna Maever L. Amit, Dickson A. Amugsi, Robert Ancuceanu, Deanna Anderlini, Catalina Liliana Andrei, Sofia Androudi, Fereshteh Ansari, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Carl Abelardo T. Antonio, Catherine M. Antony, Ernoiz Antriyandarti, Davood Anvari, Razique Anwer, Jalal Arabloo, Morteza Arab-Zozani, Aleksandr Y. Aravkin, Olatunde Aremu, Johan Ärnlöv, Malke Asaad, Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi, Ali A. Asadi-Pooya, Seyyed Shamsadin Athari, Maha Moh d.Wahbi Atout, Marcel Ausloos, Leticia Avila-Burgos, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Getinet Ayano, Martin Amogre Ayanore, Yared Asmare Aynalem, Getie Lake Aynalem, Muluken Altaye Ayza, Samad Azari, Peter S. Azzopardi, Darshan B. B, Ebrahim Babaee, Ashish D. Badiye, Mohammad Amin Bahrami, Atif Amin Baig, Mohammad Hossein Bakhshaei, Ahad Bakhtiari, Shankar M. Bakkannavar, Arun Balachandran, Maciej Banach, Srikanta K. Banerjee, Palash Chandra Banik, Agegnehu Bante Bante, Simachew Animen Bante, Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo, Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Lope H. Barrero, Quique Bassat, Sanjay Basu, Bernhard T. Baune, Mohsen Bayati, Bayisa Abdissa Baye, Neeraj Bedi, Ettore Beghi, Masoud Behzadifar, Tariku Tesfaye Tesfaye Bekuma, Michelle L. Bell, Isabela M. Bensenor, Adam E. Berman, Eduardo Bernabe, Robert S. Bernstein, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Dinesh Bhandari, Pankaj Bhardwaj, Anusha Ganapati Bhat, Krittika Bhattacharyya, Suraj Bhattarai, Zulfiqar A. Bhutta, Ali Bijani, Boris Bikbov, Ver Bilano, Antonio Biondi, Binyam Minuye Birihane, Moses John Bockarie, Somayeh Bohlouli, Hunduma Amensisa Bojia, Srinivasa Rao Rao Bolla, Archith Boloor, Oliver J. Brady, Dejana Braithwaite, Andrew M. Briggs, Nikolay Ivanovich Briko, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Reinhard Busse, Zahid A. Butt, Florentino Luciano Caetano dos Santos, Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado, Luis Alberto Cámera, Rosario Cárdenas, Giulia Carreras, Juan J. Carrero, Felix Carvalho, Joao Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia, Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela, Giulio Castelpietra, Franz Castro, Ferrán Catalá-López, Christopher R. Cederroth, Ester Cerin, Joht Singh Chandan, Angela Y. Chang, Jaykaran Charan, Vijay Kumar Chattu, Sarika Chaturvedi, Ken Lee Chin, Daniel Youngwhan Cho, Jee Young Jasmine Choi, Hanne Christensen, Dinh Toi Chu, Michael T. Chung, Liliana G. Ciobanu, Massimo Cirillo, Kelly Compton, Paolo Angelo Cortesi, Vera Marisa Costa, Ewerton Cousin, Saad M.A. Dahlawi, Giovanni Damiani, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Jiregna Darega Gela, Aso Mohammad Darwesh, Ahmad Daryani, Aditya Prasad Dash, Gail Davey, Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes, Kairat Davletov, Jan Walter De Neve, Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Kebede Deribe, Nikolaos Dervenis, Rupak Desai, Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne, Govinda Prasad Dhungana, Mostafa Dianatinasab, Diana Dias da Silva, Daniel Diaz, Ilse N. Dippenaar, Hoa Thi Do, Fariba Dorostkar, Leila Doshmangir, Bruce B. Duncan, Andre Rodrigues Duraes, Arielle Wilder Eagan, David Edvardsson, Iman El Sayed, Maha El Tantawi, Islam Y. Elgendy, Iqbal RF Elyazar, Khalil Eskandari, Sharareh Eskandarieh, Saman Esmaeilnejad, Alireza Esteghamati, Oluchi Ezekannagha, Tamer Farag, Mohammad Farahmand, Emerito Jose A. Faraon, Carla Sofia e.Sá Farinha, Andrea Farioli, Pawan Sirwan Faris, Andre Faro, Mehdi Fazlzadeh, Valery L. Feigin, Eduarda Fernandes, Pietro Ferrara, Garumma Tolu Feyissa, Irina Filip, Florian Fischer, James L. Fisher, Luisa Sorio Flor, Nataliya A. Foigt, Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan, Artem Alekseevich Fomenkov, Masoud Foroutan, Joel Msafiri Francis, Weijia Fu, Takeshi Fukumoto, João M. Furtado, Mohamed M. Gad, Abhay Motiramji Gaidhane, Emmanuela Gakidou, Natalie C. Galles, Silvano Gallus, William M. Gardner, Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam, Abiyu Mekonnen Gebrehiwot, Leake G. Gebremeskel, Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel, Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Keyghobad Ghadiri, Mansour Ghafourifard, Ahmad Ghashghaee, Nermin Ghith, Asadollah Gholamian, Syed Amir Gilani, Paramjit Singh Gill, Tiffany K. Gill, Themba G. Ginindza, Mojgan Gitimoghaddam, Giorgia Giussani, Mustefa Glagn, Elena V. Gnedovskaya, Myron Anthony Godinho, Salime Goharinezhad, Sameer Vali Gopalani, Amir Hossein Goudarzian, Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen Gubari, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Rashid Abdi Guled, Teklemariam Gultie, Yuming Guo, Rahul Gupta, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Abdul Hafiz, Teklehaimanot Gereziher Haile, Randah R. Hamadeh, Sajid Hameed, Samer Hamidi, Chieh Han, Hannah Han, Demelash Woldeyohannes Handiso, Asif Hanif, Graeme J. Hankey, Josep Maria Haro, Ahmed I. Hasaballah, Md Mehedi Hasan, Abdiwahab Hashi, Shoaib Hassan, Amr Hassan, Soheil Hassanipour, Hadi Hassankhani, Rasmus J. Havmoeller, Simon I. Hay, Khezar Hayat, Golnaz Heidari, Reza Heidari-Soureshjani, Delia Hendrie, Claudiu Herteliu, Thomas R. Hird, Hung Chak Ho, Michael K. Hole, Ramesh Holla, Praveen Hoogar, Kathleen Pillsbury Hopf, Nobuyuki Horita, Naznin Hossain, Mostafa Hosseini, Mehdi Hosseinzadeh, Mihaela Hostiuc, Sorin Hostiuc, Mowafa Househ, Vivian Chia rong Hsieh, Guoqing Hu, Tanvir M. Huda, Ayesha Humayun, Bing Fang Hwang, Ivo Iavicoli, Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye, Nayu Ikeda, Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi, Milena D. Ilic, Leeberk Raja Inbaraj, Usman Iqbal, Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani, Caleb Mackay Salpeter Irvine, M. Mofizul Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Farhad Islami, Hiroyasu Iso, Chinwe Juliana Iwu, Jalil Jaafari, Farhad Jadidi-Niaragh, Morteza Jafarinia, Deepa Jahagirdar, Mohammad Ali Jahani, Nader Jahanmehr, Mihajlo Jakovljevic, Hosna Janjani, Tahereh Javaheri, Achala Upendra Jayatilleke, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Ravi Prakash Jha, Vivekanand Jha, John S. Ji, Peng Jia, Yetunde O. John-Akinola, Jost B. Jonas, Farahnaz Joukar, Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Mikk Jürisson, Zubair Kabir, Leila R. Kalankesh, Rohollah Kalhor, Aruna M. Kamath, Tanuj Kanchan, Neeti Kapoor, Behzad Karami Matin, Marina Karanikolos, Seyed M. Karimi, Nicholas J. Kassebaum, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Gbenga A. Kayode, Peter Njenga Keiyoro, Yousef Saleh Khader, Mohammad Khammarnia, Maseer Khan, Ejaz Ahmad Khan, Young Ho Khang, Khaled Khatab, Amir M. Khater, Mona M. Khater, Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib, Maryam Khayamzadeh, Jagdish Khubchandani, Neda Kianipour, Yun Jin Kim, Ruth W. Kimokoti, Yohannes Kinfu, Adnan Kisa, Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek, Mika Kivimäki, Cameron J. Kneib, Jonathan M. Kocarnik, Sonali Kochhar, Stefan Kohler, Jacek A. Kopec, Anna V. Korotkova, Vladimir Andreevich Korshunov, Soewarta Kosen, Anirudh Kotlo, Parvaiz A. Koul, Ai Koyanagi, Kewal Krishan, Kris J. Krohn, Nuworza Kugbey, Vaman Kulkarni, G. Anil Kumar, Nithin Kumar, Manasi Kumar, Om P. Kurmi, Dian Kusuma, Hmwe Hmwe Kyu, Carlo La Vecchia, Ben Lacey, Dharmesh Kumar Lal, Ratilal Lalloo, Iván Landires, Van Charles Lansingh, Anders O. Larsson, Savita Lasrado, Kathryn Mei Ming Lau, Paolo Lauriola, Jeffrey V. Lazarus, Jorge R. Ledesma, Paul H. Lee, Shaun Wen Huey Lee, Andrew T. Leever, Kate E. LeGrand, James Leigh, Matilde Leonardi, Shanshan Li, Stephen S. Lim, Lee Ling Lim, Xuefeng Liu, Giancarlo Logroscino, Alan D. Lopez, Platon D. Lopukhov, Paulo A. Lotufo, Alton Lu, Jianing Ma, Mohammed Madadin, Phetole Walter Mahasha, Morteza Mahmoudi, Azeem Majeed, Jeadran N. Malagón-Rojas, Shokofeh Maleki, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Borhan Mansouri, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Santi Martini, Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Ira Martopullo, Benjamin Ballard Massenburg, Claudia I. Mastrogiacomo, Manu Raj Mathur, Colm McAlinden, Martin McKee, Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís, Birhanu Geta Meharie, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Entezar Mehrabi Nasab, Fereshteh Mehri, Ravi Mehrotra, Teferi Mekonnen, Addisu Melese, Peter T.N. Memiah, Walter Mendoza, Ritesh G. Menezes, George A. Mensah, Tuomo J. Meretoja, Atte Meretoja, Tomislav Mestrovic, Bartosz Miazgowski, Irmina Maria Michalek, Erkin M. Mirrakhimov, Maryam Mirzaei, Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh, Philip B. Mitchell, Babak Moazen, Masoud Moghadaszadeh, Efat Mohamadi, Yousef Mohammad, Dara K. Mohammad, Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Shafiu Mohammed, Jemal Abdu Mohammed, Ali H. Mokdad, Lorenzo Monasta, Stefania Mondello, Masoud Moradi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Rahmatollah Moradzadeh, Paula Moraga, Joana Morgado-da-Costa, Shane Douglas Morrison, Abbas Mosapour, Jonathan F. Mosser, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Moses K. Muriithi, Ghulam Mustafa, Ashraf F. Nabhan, Mehdi Naderi, Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan, Mohsen Naghavi, Behshad Naghshtabrizi, Mukhammad David Naimzada, Vinay Nangia, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Vinod C. Nayak, Javad Nazari, Rawlance Ndejjo, Ionut Negoi, Ruxandra Irina Negoi, Subas Neupane, Kiirithio N. Ngari, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Josephine W. Ngunjiri, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Diep Ngoc Nguyen, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Chukwudi A. Nnaji, Shuhei Nomura, Ole F. Norheim, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Christoph Nowak, Virginia Nunez-Samudio, Adrian Otoiu, Felix Akpojene Ogbo, Onome Bright Oghenetega, In Hwan Oh, Emmanuel Wandera Okunga, Morteza Oladnabi, Andrew T. Olagunju, Jacob Olusegun Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya, Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu, Ahmed Omar Bali, Muktar Omer Omer, Kanyin L. Ong, Obinna E. Onwujekwe, Doris V.V. Ortega-Altamirano, Alberto Ortiz, Sergej M. Ostojic, Nikita Otstavnov, Stanislav S. Otstavnov, Simon Øverland, Mayowa O. Owolabi, Jagadish Rao Padubidri, Smita Pakhale, Raffaele Palladino, Adrian Pana, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Helena Ullyartha Pangaribuan, Mona Pathak, George C. Patton, Sagun Paudel, Hamidreza Pazoki Toroudi, Spencer A. Pease, Amy E. Peden, Alyssa Pennini, Emmanuel K. Peprah, Jeevan Pereira, David M. Pigott, Thomas Pilgrim, Tessa M. Pilz, Marina Pinheiro, Michael A. Piradov, Meghdad Pirsaheb, Khem Narayan Pokhrel, Maarten J. Postma, Hadi Pourjafar, Farshad Pourmalek, Reza Pourmirza Kalhori, Akram Pourshams, Sergio I. Prada, Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi, Elisabetta Pupillo, Zahiruddin Quazi Syed, Amir Radfar, Ata Rafiee, Alireza Rafiei, Alberto Raggi, Fakher Rahim, Muhammad Aziz Rahman, Ali Rajabpour-Sanati, Saleem Muhammad Rana, Chhabi Lal Ranabhat, Sowmya J. Rao, Davide Rasella, Vahid Rashedi, Goura Kishor Rath, Priya Rathi, Salman Rawaf, David Laith Rawaf, Lal Rawal, Reza Rawassizadeh, Christian Razo, Vishnu Renjith, Andre M.N. Renzaho, Bhageerathy Reshmi, Nima Rezaei, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Daniel Cury Ribeiro, Jennifer Rickard, Nicholas L.S. Roberts, Leonardo Roever, Michele Romoli, Luca Ronfani, Gholamreza Roshandel, Enrico Rubagotti, Godfrey M. Rwegerera, Siamak Sabour, Perminder S. Sachdev, Basema Saddik, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Ehsan Sadeghi, Yahya Safari, Rajesh Sagar, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, S. Mohammad Sajadi, Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Marwa R.Rashad Salem, Hosni Salem, Joshua Salomon, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Abdallah M. Samy, Juan Sanabria, Milena M. Santric-Milicevic, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy, Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez, Benn Sartorius, Arash Sarveazad, Brijesh Sathian, Thirunavukkarasu Sathish, Davide Sattin, Miloje Savic, Susan M. Sawyer, Deepak Saxena, Alyssa N. Sbarra, Lauren E. Schaeffer, Silvia Schiavolin, Maria Inês Schmidt, Aletta Elisabeth Schutte, David C. Schwebel, Falk Schwendicke, Soraya Seedat, Feng Sha, Saeed Shahabi, Amira A. 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Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves all people receiving the health services they need, of high quality, without experiencing financial hardship. Making progress towards UHC is a policy priority for both countries and global institutions, as highlighted by the agenda of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and WHO's Thirteenth General Programme of Work (GPW13). Measuring effective coverage at the health-system level is important for understanding whether health services are aligned with countries' health profiles and are of sufficient quality to produce health gains for populations of all ages. Methods: Based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we assessed UHC effective coverage for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. Drawing from a measurement framework developed through WHO's GPW13 consultation, we mapped 23 effective coverage indicators to a matrix representing health service types (eg, promotion, prevention, and treatment) and five population-age groups spanning from reproductive and newborn to older adults (≥65 years). Effective coverage indicators were based on intervention coverage or outcome-based measures such as mortality-to-incidence ratios to approximate access to quality care; outcome-based measures were transformed to values on a scale of 0–100 based on the 2·5th and 97·5th percentile of location-year values. We constructed the UHC effective coverage index by weighting each effective coverage indicator relative to its associated potential health gains, as measured by disability-adjusted life-years for each location-year and population-age group. For three tests of validity (content, known-groups, and convergent), UHC effective coverage index performance was generally better than that of other UHC service coverage indices from WHO (ie, the current metric for SDG indicator 3.8.1 on UHC service coverage), the World Bank, and GBD 2017. We quantified frontiers of UHC effective coverage performance on the basis of pooled health spending per capita, representing UHC effective coverage index levels achieved in 2019 relative to country-level government health spending, prepaid private expenditures, and development assistance for health. To assess current trajectories towards the GPW13 UHC billion target—1 billion more people benefiting from UHC by 2023—we estimated additional population equivalents with UHC effective coverage from 2018 to 2023. Findings: Globally, performance on the UHC effective coverage index improved from 45·8 (95% uncertainty interval 44·2–47·5) in 1990 to 60·3 (58·7–61·9) in 2019, yet country-level UHC effective coverage in 2019 still spanned from 95 or higher in Japan and Iceland to lower than 25 in Somalia and the Central African Republic. Since 2010, sub-Saharan Africa showed accelerated gains on the UHC effective coverage index (at an average increase of 2·6% [1·9–3·3] per year up to 2019); by contrast, most other GBD super-regions had slowed rates of progress in 2010–2019 relative to 1990–2010. Many countries showed lagging performance on effective coverage indicators for non-communicable diseases relative to those for communicable diseases and maternal and child health, despite non-communicable diseases accounting for a greater proportion of potential health gains in 2019, suggesting that many health systems are not keeping pace with the rising non-communicable disease burden and associated population health needs. In 2019, the UHC effective coverage index was associated with pooled health spending per capita (r=0·79), although countries across the development spectrum had much lower UHC effective coverage than is potentially achievable relative to their health spending. Under maximum efficiency of translating health spending into UHC effective coverage performance, countries would need to reach $1398 pooled health spending per capita (US$ adjusted for purchasing power parity) in order to achieve 80 on the UHC effective coverage index. From 2018 to 2023, an estimated 388·9 million (358·6–421·3) more population equivalents would have UHC effective coverage, falling well short of the GPW13 target of 1 billion more people benefiting from UHC during this time. Current projections point to an estimated 3·1 billion (3·0–3·2) population equivalents still lacking UHC effective coverage in 2023, with nearly a third (968·1 million [903·5–1040·3]) residing in south Asia. Interpretation: The present study demonstrates the utility of measuring effective coverage and its role in supporting improved health outcomes for all people—the ultimate goal of UHC and its achievement. Global ambitions to accelerate progress on UHC service coverage are increasingly unlikely unless concerted action on non-communicable diseases occurs and countries can better translate health spending into improved performance. Focusing on effective coverage and accounting for the world's evolving health needs lays the groundwork for better understanding how close—or how far—all populations are in benefiting from UHC. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1250-1284
Number of pages35
JournalThe Lancet
Volume396
Issue number10258
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 17 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Lucas Guimar?es Abreu acknowledges support from Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior - Brasil (Capes) - Finance Code 001, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico (CNPq) and Funda??o de Amparo ? Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG). Olatunji O Adetokunboh acknowledges South African Department of Science & Innovation, and National Research Foundation. Anurag Agrawal acknowledges support from the Wellcome Trust DBT India Alliance Senior Fellowship IA/CPHS/14/1/501489. Rufus Olusola Akinyemi acknowledges Grant U01HG010273 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as part of the H3Africa Consortium. Rufus Olusola Akinyemi is further supported by the FLAIR fellowship funded by the UK Royal Society and the African Academy of Sciences. Syed Mohamed Aljunid acknowledges the Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Public Health, Kuwait University and International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia for the approval and support to participate in this research project. Marcel Ausloos, Claudiu Herteliu, and Adrian Pana acknowledge partial support by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNDS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P4-ID-PCCF-2016-0084. Till Winfried B?rnighausen acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through the Alexander von Humboldt Professor award, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Juan J Carrero was supported by the Swedish Research Council (2019-01059). Felix Carvalho acknowledges UID/MULTI/04378/2019 and UID/QUI/50006/2019 support with funding from FCT/MCTES through national funds. Vera Marisa Costa acknowledges support from grant (SFRH/BHD/110001/2015), received by Portuguese national funds through Funda??o para a Ci?ncia e a Tecnologia (FCT), IP, under the Norma Transit?3ria DL57/2016/CP1334/CT0006. Jan-Walter De Neve acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Kebede Deribe acknowledges support by Wellcome Trust grant number 201900/Z/16/Z as part of his International Intermediate Fellowship. Claudiu Herteliu acknowledges partial support by a grant co-funded by European Fund for Regional Development through Operational Program for Competitiveness, Project ID P_40_382. Praveen Hoogar acknowledges the Centre for Bio Cultural Studies (CBiCS), Manipal Academy of Higher Education(MAHE), Manipal and Centre for Holistic Development and Research (CHDR), Kalghatgi. Bing-Fang Hwang acknowledges support from China Medical University (CMU108-MF-95), Taichung, Taiwan. Mihajlo Jakovljevic acknowledges the Serbian part of this GBD contribution was co-funded through the Grant OI175014 of the Ministry of Education Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. Aruna M Kamath acknowledges funding from the National Institutes of Health T32 grant (T32GM086270). Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi acknowledges funding from the Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12017/13 & MC_UU_12017/15), Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office (SPHSU13 & SPHSU15) and an NRS Senior Clinical Fellowship (SCAF/15/02). Yun Jin Kim acknowledges support from the Research Management Centre, Xiamen University Malaysia (XMUMRF/2018-C2/ITCM/0001). Kewal Krishan acknowledges support from the DST PURSE grant and UGC Center of Advanced Study (CAS II) awarded to the Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. Manasi Kumar acknowledges support from K43 TW010716 Fogarty International Center/NIMH. Ben Lacey acknowledges support from the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the BHF Centre of Research Excellence, Oxford. Iv?n Landires is a member of the Sistema Nacional de Investigaci?3n (SNI), which is supported by the Secretar?a Nacional de Ciencia Tecnolog?a e Innovaci?n (SENACYT), Panam?. Jeffrey V Lazarus acknowledges support by a Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities Miguel Servet grant (Instituto de Salud Carlos III/ESF, European Union [CP18/00074]). Peter T N Memiah acknowledges CODESRIA; HISTP. Subas Neupane acknowledges partial support from the Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Tampere University Hospital. Shuhei Nomura acknowledges support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (18K10082). Alberto Ortiz acknowledges support by ISCIII PI19/00815, DTS18/00032, ISCIII-RETIC REDinREN RD016/0009 Fondos FEDER, FRIAT, Comunidad de Madrid B2017/BMD-3686 CIFRA2-CM. These funding sources had no role in the writing of the manuscript or the decision to submit it for publication. George C Patton acknowledges support from a National Health & Medical Research Council Fellowship. Marina Pinheiro acknowledges support from FCT for funding through program DL 57/2016 - Norma transit?3ria. Alberto Raggi, David Sattin, and Silvia Schiavolin acknowledge support by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Health (Ricerca Corrente, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico C Besta, Linea 4 - Outcome Research: dagli Indicatori alle Raccomandazioni Cliniche). Daniel Cury Ribeiro acknowledges support from the Sir Charles Hercus Health Research Fellowship - Health Research Council of New Zealand (18/111). Perminder S Sachdev acknowledges funding from the NHMRC Australia. Abdallah M Samy acknowledges support from a fellowship from the Egyptian Fulbright Mission Program. Milena M Santric-Milicevic acknowledges support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Contract No. 175087). Rodrigo Sarmiento-Su?rez acknowledges institutional support from University of Applied and Environmental Sciences in Bogota, Colombia, and Carlos III Institute of Health in Madrid, Spain. Maria In?s Schmidt acknowledges grants from the Foundation for the Support of Research of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (IATS and PrInt) and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam acknowledges a fellowship from the National Heart Foundation of Australia and Deakin University. Aziz Sheikh acknowledges support from Health Data Research UK. Kenji Shibuya acknowledges Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Joan B Soriano acknowledges support by Centro de Investigaci?n en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain. Rafael Tabar?s-Seisdedos acknowledges partial support from grant PI17/00719 from ISCIII-FEDER. Santosh Kumar Tadakamadla acknowledges support from the National Health and Medical Research Council Early Career Fellowship, Australia. Marcello Tonelli acknowledges the David Freeze Chair in Health Services Research at the University of Calgary, AB, Canada. Editorial note: the Lancet Group takes a neutral position with respect to territorial claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Funding Information:
Ali Almasi reports a patent null pending. Robert Ancuceanu reports receiving consultancy and speakers' fees from various pharmaceutical companies. Ettore Beghi reports grants from the Italian Ministry of Health, grants from SOBI, and personal fees from Arvelle Therapeutics, outside the submitted work. Hanne Christensen reports personal fees from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Bayer, Boehringer-Ingelheim, outside the submitted work. Vivekanand Jha reports grants from GlaxoSmithKline, grants from Baxter Healthcare, personal fees from NephroPlus, grants from Biocon, grants from Zydus Cadilla, outside the submitted work. Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak reports personal fees from Amgen, Alab, Teva, Synexus, and Boehringer Ingelheim, outside the submitted work. Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi reports support from the Medical Research Council and from the Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office, during the conduct of the study. Walter Mendoza is Program Analyst in Population and Development at the United Nations Population Fund-UNFPA Country Office in Peru, an institution which does not necessarily endorse this study. Jonathan F Mosser reports grants from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, during the conduct of the study. Shuhei Nomura reports grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan. Thomas Pilgrim reports grants and personal fees from Biotronik and Boston Scientific, grants from Edwards Lifesciences, and personal fees from HighLife SAS for his work as a member of clinical event committee for a study sponsored by HighLife Sas, outside the submitted work. Maarten J Postma reports grants and personal fees from MSD, GlaxoSmithKline, Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novavax, Bristol-Myers Squibb, AstraZeneca, Sanofi, IQVIA, and Seqirus; personal fees from Quintiles, Novartis, and Pharmerit; 2% of stocks from Ingress Health, 100% of stocks from PAG, being an advisor to Asc Academics; and grants from Bayer, BioMerieux, WHO, the EU, FIND, Antilope, DIKTI, LPDP, and Budi, outside the submitted work. Elisabetta Pupillo reports grants from AIFA, outside the submitted work. Miloje Savic is an employee of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Wavre, Belgium, and holds GlaxoSmithKline restricted shares. Aletta Elisabeth Schutte reports personal fees from Omron Healthcare, Servier, Novartis, Takeda, and Abbott, outside the submitted work. Mark G Shrime reports grants from Mercy Ships and Damon Runyon Cancer Research Foundation, outside the submitted work. Jasvinder A Singh reports personal fees from Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, UBM LLC, Trio health, Medscape, WebMD, Clinical Care options, Clearview healthcare partners, Putnam associates, Spherix, Practice Point communications, the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology; personal fees from Simply Speaking, holding stock in Amarin pharmaceuticals and Viking pharmaceuticals, non-financial support from the FDA Arthritis Advisory Committee, non-financial support from Steering committee of OMERACT, an international organization that develops measures for clinical trials and receives arm's length funding from 12 pharmaceutical companies, non-financial support from the Veterans Affairs Rheumatology Field Advisory Committee, and non-financial support from the Editor and the Director of the UAB Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group Satellite Center on Network Meta-analysis, outside the submitted work. Jeffrey D Stanaway reports grants from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, during the conduct of the study. Fotis Topouzis reports grants from Pfizer, Thea, Rheon, Pharmaten, Bayer, and Bausch & Lomb; and grants and personal fees from Novartis and Omikron, outside the submitted work. Riaz Uddin worked as a visiting fellow at Deakin University Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), which paid for his travel (including flights and transport), accommodation, and meals from Deakin University, outside the submitted work.

Funding Information:
Lucas Guimarães Abreu acknowledges support from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (Capes) - Finance Code 001, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG). Olatunji O Adetokunboh acknowledges South African Department of Science & Innovation, and National Research Foundation. Anurag Agrawal acknowledges support from the Wellcome Trust DBT India Alliance Senior Fellowship IA/CPHS/14/1/501489. Rufus Olusola Akinyemi acknowledges Grant U01HG010273 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as part of the H3Africa Consortium. Rufus Olusola Akinyemi is further supported by the FLAIR fellowship funded by the UK Royal Society and the African Academy of Sciences. Syed Mohamed Aljunid acknowledges the Department of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Public Health, Kuwait University and International Centre for Casemix and Clinical Coding, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia for the approval and support to participate in this research project. Marcel Ausloos, Claudiu Herteliu, and Adrian Pana acknowledge partial support by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNDS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-III-P4-ID-PCCF-2016-0084. Till Winfried Bärnighausen acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation through the Alexander von Humboldt Professor award, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Juan J Carrero was supported by the Swedish Research Council (2019-01059). Felix Carvalho acknowledges UID/MULTI/04378/2019 and UID/QUI/50006/2019 support with funding from FCT/MCTES through national funds. Vera Marisa Costa acknowledges support from grant (SFRH/BHD/110001/2015), received by Portuguese national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT), IP, under the Norma TransitĀ 3 ria DL57/2016/CP1334/CT0006. Jan-Walter De Neve acknowledges support from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Kebede Deribe acknowledges support by Wellcome Trust grant number 201900/Z/16/Z as part of his International Intermediate Fellowship. Claudiu Herteliu acknowledges partial support by a grant co-funded by European Fund for Regional Development through Operational Program for Competitiveness, Project ID P_40_382. Praveen Hoogar acknowledges the Centre for Bio Cultural Studies (CBiCS), Manipal Academy of Higher Education(MAHE), Manipal and Centre for Holistic Development and Research (CHDR), Kalghatgi. Bing-Fang Hwang acknowledges support from China Medical University (CMU108-MF-95), Taichung, Taiwan. Mihajlo Jakovljevic acknowledges the Serbian part of this GBD contribution was co-funded through the Grant OI175014 of the Ministry of Education Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. Aruna M Kamath acknowledges funding from the National Institutes of Health T32 grant (T32GM086270). Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi acknowledges funding from the Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12017/13 & MC_UU_12017/15), Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office (SPHSU13 & SPHSU15) and an NRS Senior Clinical Fellowship (SCAF/15/02). Yun Jin Kim acknowledges support from the Research Management Centre, Xiamen University Malaysia (XMUMRF/2018-C2/ITCM/0001). Kewal Krishan acknowledges support from the DST PURSE grant and UGC Center of Advanced Study (CAS II) awarded to the Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. Manasi Kumar acknowledges support from K43 TW010716 Fogarty International Center/NIMH. Ben Lacey acknowledges support from the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre and the BHF Centre of Research Excellence, Oxford. Iván Landires is a member of the Sistema Nacional de InvestigaciĀ 3 n (SNI), which is supported by the Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia Tecnología e Innovación (SENACYT), Panamá. Jeffrey V Lazarus acknowledges support by a Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities Miguel Servet grant (Instituto de Salud Carlos III/ESF, European Union [CP18/00074]). Peter T N Memiah acknowledges CODESRIA; HISTP. Subas Neupane acknowledges partial support from the Competitive State Research Financing of the Expert Responsibility area of Tampere University Hospital. Shuhei Nomura acknowledges support from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (18K10082). Alberto Ortiz acknowledges support by ISCIII PI19/00815, DTS18/00032, ISCIII-RETIC REDinREN RD016/0009 Fondos FEDER, FRIAT, Comunidad de Madrid B2017/BMD-3686 CIFRA2-CM. These funding sources had no role in the writing of the manuscript or the decision to submit it for publication. George C Patton acknowledges support from a National Health & Medical Research Council Fellowship. Marina Pinheiro acknowledges support from FCT for funding through program DL 57/2016 - Norma transitĀ 3 ria. Alberto Raggi, David Sattin, and Silvia Schiavolin acknowledge support by a grant from the Italian Ministry of Health (Ricerca Corrente, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico C Besta, Linea 4 - Outcome Research: dagli Indicatori alle Raccomandazioni Cliniche). Daniel Cury Ribeiro acknowledges support from the Sir Charles Hercus Health Research Fellowship - Health Research Council of New Zealand (18/111). Perminder S Sachdev acknowledges funding from the NHMRC Australia. Abdallah M Samy acknowledges support from a fellowship from the Egyptian Fulbright Mission Program. Milena M Santric-Milicevic acknowledges support from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia (Contract No. 175087). Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez acknowledges institutional support from University of Applied and Environmental Sciences in Bogota, Colombia, and Carlos III Institute of Health in Madrid, Spain. Maria Inês Schmidt acknowledges grants from the Foundation for the Support of Research of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (IATS and PrInt) and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam acknowledges a fellowship from the National Heart Foundation of Australia and Deakin University. Aziz Sheikh acknowledges support from Health Data Research UK. Kenji Shibuya acknowledges Japan Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Joan B Soriano acknowledges support by Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain. Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos acknowledges partial support from grant PI17/00719 from ISCIII-FEDER. Santosh Kumar Tadakamadla acknowledges support from the National Health and Medical Research Council Early Career Fellowship, Australia. Marcello Tonelli acknowledges the David Freeze Chair in Health Services Research at the University of Calgary, AB, Canada.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

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