Measuring nicotine dependence among smokeless tobacco users

Janet L. Thomas, Jon O. Ebbert, Christi A. Patten, Lowell C. Dale, Carrie A. Bronars, Darrell R. Schroeder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The objective of this study was to assess the concurrent validity of the FTQ-ST and the DIS-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence among 68 adult ST users enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial of bupropion SR. FTQ-ST scores were not found to differ between those with and without a current DIS-IV diagnosis of nicotine dependence (7.4 ± 2.1 vs. 6.8 ± 2.8, P = 0.325). For all possible FTQ-ST cutoff scores, the observed agreement between the FTQ-ST and the DIS-IV was not found to be different from that expected due to chance. FTQ-ST total scores were positively correlated with serum cotinine (Spearman's r = 0.40, P < 0.001), amount of tobacco used (r = 0.51 and r = 0.41 for average dips/chews per day; average tins/pouches per week, respectively, P < 0.001), and a reduced likelihood of abstinence at 3 months (OR = 0.76, 95% C.I. 0.61-0.96; P = 0.019). Participants meeting DIS-IV criteria had lower cotinine concentrations than those without this diagnosis (411 ± 263 ng/ml vs. 493 ± 246 ng/ml; P = 0.042). Poor concordance was observed between the FTQ-ST and the DIS-IV in the assessment of nicotine dependence in ST users.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1511-1521
Number of pages11
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2006

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded, in part, by R01CA090884 and R01CA096881 and all data was collected and analyzed at the Mayo Clinic, Nicotine Research Program. We would like to thank Liza Nirelli for her assistance with the statistical analyses.


  • DIS-IV
  • Nicotine dependence
  • Smokeless
  • Tobacco
  • Tobacco use cessation


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