Measuring dependence in smokeless tobacco users

Raymond G. Boyle, Joni Jensen, Dorothy K Hatsukami, Herbert H. Severson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


Two scales based on the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire were developed to measure dependence in smokeless tobacco users. The total score for both scales correlated positively with saliva cotinine levels in subjects, and several individual items produced equally positive correlations. Regression analyses yielded two subsets of three items from each scale that predicted cotinine level. Reports of using smokeless tobacco within 30 min of waking served as a predictor in both models. For the purposes of measuring smokeless tobacco dependence, attention should be given to individual items correlated with saliva cotinine levels that could be used to determine the direction of cessation efforts. Future research should also develop additional items specific to the use of snuff or chewing tobacco and eliminate questions not contributing to the overall scale.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)443-450
Number of pages8
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1995

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Preparation of this report was supported by DA SO1308and DA 05844 awarded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Requests for reprints should be sent to Raymond Boyle. Ph.D., Tobacco Research Program, 1701 University Avenue, Minneapolis. MN S5414.


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