Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the Student Engagement Instrument

James J. Appleton, Sandra L Christenson, Dongjin Kim, Amy L. Reschly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

569 Scopus citations


A review of relevant literatures led to the construction of a self-report instrument designed to measure two subtypes of student engagement with school: cognitive and psychological engagement. The psychometric properties of this measure, the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI), were assessed based on responses of an ethnically and economically diverse urban sample of 1931 ninth grade students. Factor structures were obtained using exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) on half of the dataset, with model fit examined using confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) on the other half of the dataset. The model displaying the best empirical fit consisted of six factors, and these factors correlated with expected educational outcomes. Further research is suggested in the iterative process of developing the SEI, and the implications of these findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)427-445
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of school psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2006

Bibliographical note

Copyright 2006 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Cognitive engagement
  • Psychological engagement
  • School engagement
  • Student engagement with school

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Measuring cognitive and psychological engagement: Validation of the Student Engagement Instrument'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this