Measuring Belongingness: The Social Connectedness and the Social Assurance Scales

Richard M. Lee, Steven B. Robbins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

755 Scopus citations


The study developed 2 measures of belongingness based on H. Kohut's (1984) self psychology theory. The Social Connectedness Scale and the Social Assurance Scale were constructed with a split-sample procedure on 626 college students. Internal reliability estimates for the 2 scales were.91 and.82, respectively. Test-retest correlations revealed good test stability over a 2-week period (r s =.96 and.84, respectively). Cross-validation for the 2 measures was achieved with confirmatory factor analysis with an incremental fit index greater than.90. Scale functions are described and results are discussed in light of current research and theory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)232-241
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Counseling Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 1995


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