Measures of strength of association: A comparative examination

Scott E. Maxwell, Cameron J. Camp, Richard D. Arvey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Scopus citations


Examines relationships among 3 ANOVA measures of association-eta squared, epsilon squared, and omega squared. The rationale for each measure is developed within the fixed-effects ANOVA model, and the measures are related to corresponding measures of association in the regression model. Special attention is paid to the conceptual distinction between measures of association in fixed- vs random-effects designs. Limitations of these measures in fixed-effects designs are discussed, and recommendations for usage are provided. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)525-534
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1981
Externally publishedYes


  • eta vs epsilon vs omega squared ANOVA measures of association, limitations & recommendations for usage


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