This study examined the measurement properties and cross-cultural equivalence of a constraints negotiation model in the context of outdoor recreation. A convenience sample of 263 U.S. and 537 Chinese university students provided data by completing questionnaires in English and Chinese, respectively. Multiple models were fitted using confrmatory factor analysis. A hypothesized six-factor first-order model did not fit the U.S. data, but a modified four-factor model achieved acceptable fit. A second-order negotiation measurement model fit the U.S. data, but failed the nested?2 tests. Results did not support conceptual invariance between the English and Chinese version of the scale, suggesting further inquiry is important before moving forward with its use cross-culturally. Findings and implications are discussed with future studies suggested.
- Measurement invariance
- Second order model