Background. Previous studies have suggested that maternal vitamin use during pregnancy may reduce the incidence of childhood brain tumors. Using data from a large North American study, we conducted an analysis to investigate maternal vitamin use and neuroblastoma in offspring. Methods. Cases were children diagnosed with neuroblastoma over the period 1 May 1992 to 30 April 1994 at Children's Cancer Group and Pediatric Oncology Group institutions throughout the United States and Canada. One matched control was selected for each case using random-digit dialing. We obtained vitamin use information during specific periods before and during pregnancy from 538 case and 504 control mothers through telephone interviews. Results. Daily vitamin and mineral use in the month before pregnancy and in each trimester was associated with a 30-40% reduction in risk of neuroblastoma. For example, daily use in the second trimester had an odds ratio of 0.6 (95% confidence interval = 0.4-0.9). We were unable to isolate the effects of specific vitamins or minerals. Neither age at diagnosis nor MYCN oncogene amplification status materially altered the results. Conclusions. The results of this study suggest that vitamin use during pregnancy might reduce incidence of neuroblastoma, consistent with findings for other childhood cancers.