Maternal diabetes and fetal cardiac output

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BACKGROUND: The intrauterine environment is a key determinant for long-term health outcomes. Adverse fetal environments, such as maternal diabetes, obesity and placental insufficiency are strongly associated with long-term health risks in children. Little is known about differences in fetal cardiac output hemodynamics of diabetic mothers (DM) vs. non-diabetic mothers (NDM). Our study aims to investigate the left-sided, right-sided, and combined cardiac output (CCO) in fetuses of DM vs. NDM.

METHODS: Retrospective data were collected in fetuses of DM (N = 532) and NDM (103) at mean gestational age 24 weeks. Examination included 2D echo and pulse wave Doppler. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and Chi-square tests were used to test for distribution difference of maternal and fetal continuous and categorical measures respectively between DM and NDM. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to assess intra-observer reliability of fetal cardiac measurements.

RESULTS: DM mothers had higher mean weight (89.7±22.2 kg) than NDM (76.8±19.8 kg), p <  0.0001 and higher mean BMI (33.4±7.5) than NDM (28.3±5.8), p <  0.0001. C-section delivery occurred in 66% of DM vs. 35% of NDM fetuses. Fetuses of DM mothers had significantly larger semilunar valve diameter, higher left ventricular (LV) output, higher combined cardiac output and lower right ventricle /left ventricle ratio compared to NDM.

CONCLUSION: The greater CCO (adjusted for fetal weight), left sided cardiac output in the fetuses of DM, compared to NDM, represent differences in cardiac adaptation to the diabetic environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
StatePublished - Jun 17 2021

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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