Mass Spectrometric Investigation of the Mechanism of Inactivation of Hamster Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 by N-Hydroxy-2-Acetylaminofluorene

Zhijun Guo, Carston R Wagner, Patrick E. Hanna

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are expressed in most mammalian tissues. NATs catalyze the N-acetylation of primary arylamines, the O-acetylation of N-arylhydroxylamines, and the N,O-transacetylation of N-arylhydroxamic acids. The latter two reactions result in formation of reactive, electrophilic N-acetoxyarylamines, which are considered to be the ultimate carcinogenic metabolites of certain environmental and dietary arylamines. Incubation of various N-(aryl)acetohydroxamic acids, such as N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) with hamster NAT1, results in time-dependent, concentration-dependent, and kinetically first-order irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. N-OH-AAF also causes in vivo inactivation of NAT1. The purpose of this research was to investigate the molecular mechanism of NAT1 inactivation by identifying the amino acid residues that undergo covalent modification upon NAT1-catalyzed bioactivation of N-OH-AAF and by characterizing the chemical structures of the adducts. Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of NAT1 that had been incubated with N-OH-AAF revealed that the mass of the major adduct (+195 Da) was consistent with a (2-fluorenyl)sulfinamide modification. The major adduct underwent hydrolysis to yield a protein with a molecular mass that corresponded to a sulfinic acid-modified NAT1. Treatment of NAT1 with 2-nitrosofluorene resulted in a modification (+195 Da) that was identical in mass to that obtained with N-OH-AAF-inactivated enzyme. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization quadrupole time-of flight tandem mass spectrometric (MALDI Q-TOF MS/MS) analysis revealed that the modified residue was the catalytically essential Cys68. MALDI Q-TOF MS/MS sequencing of peptides from protease digests of inactivated NAT1 also identified two minor adducts at Tyr17 and Tyr186, each of which was covalently conjugated with 2-aminofluorene. Thus, the mechanism of inactivation of NAT1 by N-OH-AAF involves NAT1-catalyzed deacetylation to afford N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene, which after oxidative conversion to 2-nitrosofluorene, forms a sulfinamide adduct by reacting with Cys68. GSH had little effect on the inactivation of NAT1 by N-OH-AAF, although high concentrations of cysteine attenuated both the extent of inactivation and the sulfinamide adduct formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)275-286
Number of pages12
JournalChemical research in toxicology
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2004

Fingerprint

2-Acetylaminofluorene
Cricetinae
Acetylation
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometry
Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase
Sulfinic Acids
Electrospray ionization
Acetyltransferases
Molecular mass
Enzymes
Metabolites
N-acetyltransferase 1
hydroxide ion
Ionization
Cysteine
Hydrolysis
Desorption
Lasers
Peptide Hydrolases
Tissue

Cite this

@article{1eb2c9e6b9fd4922b723dba0a218f210,
title = "Mass Spectrometric Investigation of the Mechanism of Inactivation of Hamster Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 by N-Hydroxy-2-Acetylaminofluorene",
abstract = "Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are expressed in most mammalian tissues. NATs catalyze the N-acetylation of primary arylamines, the O-acetylation of N-arylhydroxylamines, and the N,O-transacetylation of N-arylhydroxamic acids. The latter two reactions result in formation of reactive, electrophilic N-acetoxyarylamines, which are considered to be the ultimate carcinogenic metabolites of certain environmental and dietary arylamines. Incubation of various N-(aryl)acetohydroxamic acids, such as N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) with hamster NAT1, results in time-dependent, concentration-dependent, and kinetically first-order irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. N-OH-AAF also causes in vivo inactivation of NAT1. The purpose of this research was to investigate the molecular mechanism of NAT1 inactivation by identifying the amino acid residues that undergo covalent modification upon NAT1-catalyzed bioactivation of N-OH-AAF and by characterizing the chemical structures of the adducts. Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of NAT1 that had been incubated with N-OH-AAF revealed that the mass of the major adduct (+195 Da) was consistent with a (2-fluorenyl)sulfinamide modification. The major adduct underwent hydrolysis to yield a protein with a molecular mass that corresponded to a sulfinic acid-modified NAT1. Treatment of NAT1 with 2-nitrosofluorene resulted in a modification (+195 Da) that was identical in mass to that obtained with N-OH-AAF-inactivated enzyme. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization quadrupole time-of flight tandem mass spectrometric (MALDI Q-TOF MS/MS) analysis revealed that the modified residue was the catalytically essential Cys68. MALDI Q-TOF MS/MS sequencing of peptides from protease digests of inactivated NAT1 also identified two minor adducts at Tyr17 and Tyr186, each of which was covalently conjugated with 2-aminofluorene. Thus, the mechanism of inactivation of NAT1 by N-OH-AAF involves NAT1-catalyzed deacetylation to afford N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene, which after oxidative conversion to 2-nitrosofluorene, forms a sulfinamide adduct by reacting with Cys68. GSH had little effect on the inactivation of NAT1 by N-OH-AAF, although high concentrations of cysteine attenuated both the extent of inactivation and the sulfinamide adduct formation.",
author = "Zhijun Guo and Wagner, {Carston R} and Hanna, {Patrick E.}",
year = "2004",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1021/tx030045o",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "17",
pages = "275--286",
journal = "Chemical Research in Toxicology",
issn = "0893-228X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mass Spectrometric Investigation of the Mechanism of Inactivation of Hamster Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 1 by N-Hydroxy-2-Acetylaminofluorene

AU - Guo, Zhijun

AU - Wagner, Carston R

AU - Hanna, Patrick E.

PY - 2004/3/1

Y1 - 2004/3/1

N2 - Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are expressed in most mammalian tissues. NATs catalyze the N-acetylation of primary arylamines, the O-acetylation of N-arylhydroxylamines, and the N,O-transacetylation of N-arylhydroxamic acids. The latter two reactions result in formation of reactive, electrophilic N-acetoxyarylamines, which are considered to be the ultimate carcinogenic metabolites of certain environmental and dietary arylamines. Incubation of various N-(aryl)acetohydroxamic acids, such as N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) with hamster NAT1, results in time-dependent, concentration-dependent, and kinetically first-order irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. N-OH-AAF also causes in vivo inactivation of NAT1. The purpose of this research was to investigate the molecular mechanism of NAT1 inactivation by identifying the amino acid residues that undergo covalent modification upon NAT1-catalyzed bioactivation of N-OH-AAF and by characterizing the chemical structures of the adducts. Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of NAT1 that had been incubated with N-OH-AAF revealed that the mass of the major adduct (+195 Da) was consistent with a (2-fluorenyl)sulfinamide modification. The major adduct underwent hydrolysis to yield a protein with a molecular mass that corresponded to a sulfinic acid-modified NAT1. Treatment of NAT1 with 2-nitrosofluorene resulted in a modification (+195 Da) that was identical in mass to that obtained with N-OH-AAF-inactivated enzyme. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization quadrupole time-of flight tandem mass spectrometric (MALDI Q-TOF MS/MS) analysis revealed that the modified residue was the catalytically essential Cys68. MALDI Q-TOF MS/MS sequencing of peptides from protease digests of inactivated NAT1 also identified two minor adducts at Tyr17 and Tyr186, each of which was covalently conjugated with 2-aminofluorene. Thus, the mechanism of inactivation of NAT1 by N-OH-AAF involves NAT1-catalyzed deacetylation to afford N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene, which after oxidative conversion to 2-nitrosofluorene, forms a sulfinamide adduct by reacting with Cys68. GSH had little effect on the inactivation of NAT1 by N-OH-AAF, although high concentrations of cysteine attenuated both the extent of inactivation and the sulfinamide adduct formation.

AB - Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are expressed in most mammalian tissues. NATs catalyze the N-acetylation of primary arylamines, the O-acetylation of N-arylhydroxylamines, and the N,O-transacetylation of N-arylhydroxamic acids. The latter two reactions result in formation of reactive, electrophilic N-acetoxyarylamines, which are considered to be the ultimate carcinogenic metabolites of certain environmental and dietary arylamines. Incubation of various N-(aryl)acetohydroxamic acids, such as N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-OH-AAF) with hamster NAT1, results in time-dependent, concentration-dependent, and kinetically first-order irreversible inactivation of the enzyme. N-OH-AAF also causes in vivo inactivation of NAT1. The purpose of this research was to investigate the molecular mechanism of NAT1 inactivation by identifying the amino acid residues that undergo covalent modification upon NAT1-catalyzed bioactivation of N-OH-AAF and by characterizing the chemical structures of the adducts. Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of NAT1 that had been incubated with N-OH-AAF revealed that the mass of the major adduct (+195 Da) was consistent with a (2-fluorenyl)sulfinamide modification. The major adduct underwent hydrolysis to yield a protein with a molecular mass that corresponded to a sulfinic acid-modified NAT1. Treatment of NAT1 with 2-nitrosofluorene resulted in a modification (+195 Da) that was identical in mass to that obtained with N-OH-AAF-inactivated enzyme. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization quadrupole time-of flight tandem mass spectrometric (MALDI Q-TOF MS/MS) analysis revealed that the modified residue was the catalytically essential Cys68. MALDI Q-TOF MS/MS sequencing of peptides from protease digests of inactivated NAT1 also identified two minor adducts at Tyr17 and Tyr186, each of which was covalently conjugated with 2-aminofluorene. Thus, the mechanism of inactivation of NAT1 by N-OH-AAF involves NAT1-catalyzed deacetylation to afford N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene, which after oxidative conversion to 2-nitrosofluorene, forms a sulfinamide adduct by reacting with Cys68. GSH had little effect on the inactivation of NAT1 by N-OH-AAF, although high concentrations of cysteine attenuated both the extent of inactivation and the sulfinamide adduct formation.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1642310560&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=1642310560&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/tx030045o

DO - 10.1021/tx030045o

M3 - Article

C2 - 15025497

AN - SCOPUS:1642310560

VL - 17

SP - 275

EP - 286

JO - Chemical Research in Toxicology

JF - Chemical Research in Toxicology

SN - 0893-228X

IS - 3

ER -