2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed during the high-temperature cooking of meats. The cytochrome P450-mediated N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group of PhIP produces 2-hydroxyamino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, an electrophilic metabolite that forms adducts with DNA and proteins. Previous studies conducted by our laboratory showed that the reaction of N-oxidized PhIP metabolites with human albumin in vitro primarily occurs at the Cys34 residue, to produce an acid-labile linked sulfinamide adduct. On the basis of these findings, we developed a sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to measure acid-labile albumin-PhIP adducts in human volunteers administered a dietary-relevant dose of 14C-labeled PhIP [Dingley, K. H., et al. (1999) Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers Prev. 8, 507-512]. Mild acid treatment of albumin (0.1 N HCl, 37 °C for 1 h) or proteolytic digestion with Pronase [50 mM ammonium bicarbonate buffer (pH 8.5) at 37 °C for 18 h] released similar amounts of covalently bound PhIP, which was characterized by multistage scanning and quantified by Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The amount of [14C]PhIP recovered by acid treatment of albumin 24 h following dosing accounted for 7.2-21.3% of the [14C]PhIP bound to albumin based on accelerator mass spectrometry measurements. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-(5-hydroxy)phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, a hydrolysis product of the Cys34 S-N linked sulfenamide adduct of PhIP, was not detected in either acid-treated or protease-treated samples. These findings suggest that a portion of the PhIP bound to albumin in vivo probably occurs as an acid-labile sulfinamide adduct formed at the Cys34 residue.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by Grant 2R01CA122320 (R.J.T.). Mass spectrometry was performed in the Analytical Biochemistry Shared Resource of the Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, funded in part by Cancer Center Support Grant CA-077598.
© 2016 American Chemical Society.