Mass Calibration of Optically Selected des Clusters Using a Measurement of CMB-cluster Lensing with SPTpol Data

S. Raghunathan, S. Patil, E. Baxter, B. A. Benson, L. E. Bleem, T. L. Chou, T. M. Crawford, G. P. Holder, T. McClintock, C. L. Reichardt, E. Rozo, T. N. Varga, T. M.C. Abbott, P. A.R. Ade, S. Allam, A. J. Anderson, J. Annis, J. E. Austermann, S. Avila, J. A. BeallK. Bechtol, A. N. Bender, G. Bernstein, E. Bertin, F. Bianchini, D. Brooks, D. L. Burke, J. E. Carlstrom, J. Carretero, C. L. Chang, H. C. Chiang, H. M. Cho, R. Citron, A. T. Crites, C. E. Cunha, L. N.Da Costa, C. Davis, S. Desai, H. T. Diehl, J. P. Dietrich, M. A. Dobbs, P. Doel, T. F. Eifler, W. Everett, A. E. Evrard, B. Flaugher, P. Fosalba, J. Frieman, J. Gallicchio, J. García-Bellido, E. Gaztanaga, E. M. George, A. Gilbert, D. Gruen, R. A. Gruendl, J. Gschwend, N. Gupta, G. Gutierrez, T. De Haan, N. W. Halverson, N. Harrington, W. G. Hartley, J. W. Henning, G. C. Hilton, D. L. Hollowood, W. L. Holzapfel, K. Honscheid, Z. Hou, B. Hoyle, J. D. Hrubes, N. Huang, J. Hubmayr, K. D. Irwin, D. J. James, T. Jeltema, A. G. Kim, M. Carrasco Kind, L. Knox, A. Kovacs, K. Kuehn, N. Kuropatkin, A. T. Lee, T. S. Li, M. Lima, M. A.G. Maia, J. L. Marshall, J. J. McMahon, P. Melchior, F. Menanteau, S. S. Meyer, C. J. Miller, R. Miquel, L. Mocanu, J. Montgomery, A. Nadolski, T. Natoli, J. P. Nibarger, V. Novosad, S. Padin, A. A. Plazas, C. Pryke, D. Rapetti, A. K. Romer, A. Carnero Rosell, J. E. Ruhl, B. R. Saliwanchik, E. Sanchez, J. T. Sayre, V. Scarpine, K. K. Schaffer, M. Schubnell, S. Serrano, I. Sevilla-Noarbe, G. Smecher, R. C. Smith, M. Soares-Santos, F. Sobreira, A. A. Stark, K. T. Story, E. Suchyta, M. E.C. Swanson, G. Tarle, D. Thomas, C. Tucker, K. Vanderlinde, J. De Vicente, J. D. Vieira, G. Wang, N. Whitehorn, W. L.K. Wu, Y. Zhang

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We use cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature maps from the 500 deg 2 SPTpol survey to measure the stacked lensing convergence of galaxy clusters from the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year-3 redMaPPer (RM) cluster catalog. The lensing signal is extracted through a modified quadratic estimator designed to be unbiased by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. The modified estimator uses a tSZ-free map, constructed from the SPTpol 95 and 150 GHz data sets, to estimate the background CMB gradient. For lensing reconstruction, we employ two versions of the RM catalog: a flux-limited sample containing 4003 clusters and a volume-limited sample with 1741 clusters. We detect lensing at a significance of 8.7σ(6.7σ) with the flux (volume)-limited sample. By modeling the reconstructed convergence using the Navarro-Frenk-White profile, we find the average lensing masses to be M 200m = (1.62 -0.25 +0.32 [stat] ± 0.04 [sys.]) and (1.28 -0.18 +0.14 [stat] ± 0.03[sys.])× 10 14 M for the volume- and flux-limited samples, respectively. The systematic error budget is much smaller than the statistical uncertainty and is dominated by the uncertainties in the RM cluster centroids. We use the volume-limited sample to calibrate the normalization of the mass-richness scaling relation, and find a result consistent with the galaxy weak-lensing measurements from DES.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number170
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics at Ohio State University, the Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University, Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico and the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, the Deutsche Forschungs-gemeinschaft, and the Collaborating Institutions in the Dark Energy Survey.

Funding Information:
We thank useful conversations with Mathew Madhavacheril at the Stanford CMB-lensing meeting in 2017, which partly inspired us in building this modified QE. The Melbourne group acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council’s Discovery Projects scheme (DP150103208). S.R. also acknowledges partial support from the Laby Foundation. L.B.’s work was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. We acknowledge the use of HEALPix (Górski et al. 2005) and CAMB (Lewis et al. 2000) routines.

Funding Information:
This work was performed in the context of the South Pole Telescope scientific program. SPT is supported by the National Science Foundation through grant PLR-1248097. Partial support is also provided by the NSF Physics Frontier Center grant PHY-1125897 to the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, the Kavli Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation grant GBMF 947. This research used resources of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), a DOE Office of Science User Facility supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

Funding Information:
This manuscript has been authored by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359, with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics. The U.S. government retains—and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the U.S. government retains—a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for US government purposes.

Funding Information:
The study is based in part on observations at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

Funding Information:
The DES data management system is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant No. AST-1138766 and AST-1536171. The DES participants from Spanish institutions are partially supported by MINECO under grants AYA2015-71825, ESP2015-66861, FPA2015-68048, SEV-2016-0588, SEV-2016-0597, and MDM-2015-0509, some of which include ERDF funds from the European Union. IFAE is partially funded by the CERCA program of the Generalitat de Catalunya. Research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013), including ERC grant agreements 240672, 291329, and 306478. We acknowledge support from the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), through project number CE110001020, and the Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia (INCT) e-Universe (CNPq grant 465376/2014-2).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


  • cosmic background radiation
  • galaxies: clusters: general
  • gravitational lensing: weak


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