Marginal Impacts of Park-and-Ride Facilities in the Twin Cities Region of the US

Michael Duncan, Jason Cao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Understanding the marginal impacts of park-and-ride (P&R) transit facilities can help in planning an efficient transit system. However, these marginal impacts are not well established in a U.S. context. This study helps to fill this gap using a survey of P&R users from the Twin Cities region in which the questions were specifically designed to determine how respondents would react to the removal of a P&R facility. The responses allow for an estimation of the net (or marginal) impact on ridership and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) directly attributable to the presence of P&R facilities. Over 80% of the surveyed P&R users would only use transit if they had access to a P&R facility. They would generate an average of 19 additional VMT per round trip without a P&R option. If access to their current P&R facility was removed but they were given the option to choose an alternative facility, the respondents who would quit using transit dropped to 32% with an average of 10 additional VMT generated, although these numbers vary to some degree when broken down by specific P&R facilities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)403-413
Number of pages11
JournalTransportation Research Record
Issue number11
StatePublished - Sep 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Data collection was funded by Minnesota Department of Transportation.

Publisher Copyright:
© National Academy of Sciences: Transportation Research Board 2020.


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