Mapping Brain Metabolites Using a Double Echo-Filter Metabolite Imaging (DEFMI) Technique

Wei Chen, Jiani Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


A double echo-filter metabolite imaging (DEFMI) technique was developed for spatial mapping of low-concentration metabolites in the human brain. This imaging technique simultaneously acquires two images from two individual metabolites, respectively, using conventional imaging acquisition. It provides (i) efficient water and lipid suppressions, (ii) the capability of collecting high-resolution metabolite images within a short time and creating a ratio image from two interesting metabolites within a single experiment, and (iii) flexibility and simplicity for experimental setup and data processing. The technique was examined by both phantom and human brain experiments at 4 Tesla. The results reveal that the DEFMI technique is promising for applications in metabolism studies aimed at investigating physiological and pathological questions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)363-370
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1999

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Drs. Kamil Ugurbil, Jeffrey L. Evelhoch, and Xiao-Hong Zhu for their support. This research was partially supported by P41 RR08079, a National Research Resource (NIH) grant, and NIH Grant NS38071 (W.C.).

Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Chemical shift imaging
  • Human brain
  • Metabolite imaging
  • NMR sensitivity
  • NMR spectroscopy


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