Many children left behind? Textbooks and test scores in Kenya

Paul Glewwe, Michael Kremer, Sylvie Moulin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

209 Scopus citations


A randomized evaluation in rural Kenya finds, contrary to the previous literature, that providing textbooks did not raise average test scores. Textbooks did increase the scores of the best students (those with high pretest scores) but had little effect on other students. Textbooks are written in English, most students' third language, and many students could not use them effectively. More generally, the curriculum in Kenya, and in many other developing countries, tends to be oriented toward academically strong students, leaving many students behind in societies that combine a centralized educational system; the heterogeneity in student preparation associated with rapid educational expansion; and disproportionate elite power.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)112-135
Number of pages24
JournalAmerican Economic Journal: Applied Economics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009


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