The review summarizes the current state of knowledge of mannitol as an excipient in lyophilized injectable small and large molecule formulations. When compared with glycine, the physicochemical properties of mannitol make it a desirable and preferred bulking agent. Though mannitol is a popular bulking agent in freeze-dried formulations, its use may pose certain challenges such as vial breakage or its existence as a metastable crystalline hemihydrate in the final cake, necessitating appropriate mitigation strategies. The understanding of the phase behavior of mannitol in aqueous systems, during the various stages of freeze-drying, can be critical for the optimization of freeze-drying cycle parameters in multi-component formulations. Finally, using a decision tree as a guiding tool, we demonstrate the use of orthogonal techniques for attaining a stable and cost-effective lyophilized drug product containing mannitol.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Authors thank Dr. Serguei Tchessalov for the review and helpful comments.
© 2022 American Pharmacists Association
- Bulking agent
- Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
- X-ray Powder diffraction (XRD)
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article