Manipulation of Oxidative Stress Responses by Non-Thermal Plasma to Treat Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection and Disease

Julia Sutter, Peter J. Bruggeman, Brian Wigdahl, Fred C. Krebs, Vandana Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a contagious pathogen with a large global footprint, due to its ability to cause lifelong infection in patients. Current antiviral therapies are effective in limiting viral replication in the epithelial cells to alleviate clinical symptoms, but ineffective in eliminating latent viral reservoirs in neurons. Much of HSV-1 pathogenesis is dependent on its ability to manipulate oxidative stress responses to craft a cellular environment that favors HSV-1 replication. However, to maintain redox homeostasis and to promote antiviral immune responses, the infected cell can upregulate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) while having a tight control on antioxidant concentrations to prevent cellular damage. Non-thermal plasma (NTP), which we propose as a potential therapy alternative directed against HSV-1 infection, is a means to deliver RONS that affect redox homeostasis in the infected cell. This review emphasizes how NTP can be an effective therapy for HSV-1 infections through the direct antiviral activity of RONS and via immunomodulatory changes in the infected cells that will stimulate anti-HSV-1 adaptive immune responses. Overall, NTP application can control HSV-1 replication and address the challenges of latency by decreasing the size of the viral reservoir in the nervous system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4673
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • adaptive immunity
  • antioxidant
  • antiviral therapy
  • immunomodulation
  • innate immunity
  • oxidative stress
  • plasma
  • reactive oxygen and nitrogen species
  • redox homeostasis

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Review


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