Managing for preferred hunting experiences: A typology of minnesota waterfowl hunters

Sue Schroeder, David C. Fulton, Jeffrey S. Lawrence

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Most research describing the characteristics and behaviors of waterfowl hunters has assumed this group of sportsmen to be relatively homogenous. Using data obtained through a mail survey conducted in 2000, we developed a typology of Minnesota waterfowl hunters based on experience preferences. This type of information may assist wildlife managers in making regulatory recommendations that increase hunter satisfaction, and hence, participation. We used cluster analysis to group hunters into 5 types. We identified 2 types as enthusiasts and 3 as participants. Enthusiasts hunted more days and placed greater importance on almost all experience items than other respondents. We characterized participant hunters as longtime waterfowl-hunting participants, less-engaged waterfowl-hunting participants, and recreational-casual waterfowl-hunting participants. Longtime and less-engaged waterfowl hunters tended to be older than all other respondents. We suggest that modeling hunter participation using experience preferences and satisfaction also may enhance the harvest-management process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)380-387
Number of pages8
JournalWildlife Society Bulletin
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2006


  • Cluster analysis
  • Harvest management
  • Human dimensions
  • Hunter participation
  • Hunter satisfaction
  • Market segmentation
  • Motivations
  • Typology
  • Waterfowl hunters


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