Management of Select Bacterial and Parasitic Conditions of Raptors

Michelle Willette, Julia Ponder, Luis Cruz-Martinez, Lori R Arent, Irene Bueno Padilla, Olga Nicolas de Francisco, Patrick T Redig

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Raptors are susceptible to a broad array of established and emerging bacterial and parasitic diseases, including babesiosis, chlamydiosis, clostridiosis, coccidiosis, cryptosporidiosis, malaria, mycobacteriosis, pasteurellosis, salmonellosis, trichomoniasis, and pododermatitis. Many of these conditions are opportunistic and can be easily managed or averted with proper preventive measures related to captive management, husbandry and diet, and veterinary care. Once infected, treatment must be prompt, appropriate, and judicious. This article examines the significance, diagnosis, management, and prevention of select bacterial and parasitic pathogens of raptors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)491-517
Number of pages27
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2009


  • Bacterial disease
  • Bird of prey
  • Bumblefoot
  • Emerging disease
  • Parasitic disease
  • Pododermatitis


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